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Project Report
2014
Effect of UV Rays on the Colonial & Cellular
Morphology and Catalase Activity of Baker’s and
wild yeast
Contents
Abstract
Objectives
Introduction
Materials & Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible
light, but lon...
Ultraviolet radiation in our environment is as common as sunlight. It generates genetic diversity
and kills cells. When a ...
Materials & Methods
Apparatus
 Petriplates
 Test tubes
 Test tube stand
 Incubator
 Spreader
 Micropipettes
 Microt...
 YPD Broth
Sr No Ingredients Amount (g/Litre)
1. Peptone 20
2. Dextrose 20
3. Yeast extract 10
For YPD Broth Peptone and ...
Figure: Crowding of yeast on 10-3 dilution of the soil sample
 For Baker’s yeast sample, 0.5g of yeast was taken and mixe...
Isolation of Pure Strains
Yeast strains were identified by performing wet mount and then purified by performing streaking
...
Exposure of UV Radiations
YPD broth was poured in two test tubes and autoclaved. Then single colony was picked from
both t...
Figure: Colony morphology of Baker’s yeast before UV exposure
Figure: Colony morphology of Baker’s yeast after UV exposure...
5. Surface Smooth & Shiny Rough & Matt
Table showing the effect of UV exposure on the colonial morphology of wild type yea...
Figure: Cellular morphology of Baker’s yeast before UV exposure
Figure: Cellular morphology of Baker’s yeast after UV expo...
Figure: Cellular morphology of wild yeast after UV exposure
Effect of UV on the Catalase Activity of Baker’s Yeast Sample
...
Effect of UV on the Catalase Activity of Wild Yeast Sample
Figure: Catalase activity of wild yeast before UV exposure (Pos...
In both strains of yeast survival rate also decreases and the effect of UV is mainly on the genetic
level i.e., on genes.
...
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Effect of UV Rays on the Colonial & Cellular Morphology and Catalase Activity of Baker’s and wild yeast

Effect of UV Rays on the Colonial & Cellular Morphology and Catalase Activity of Baker’s and wild yeast

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Effect of UV Rays on the Colonial & Cellular Morphology and Catalase Activity of Baker’s and wild yeast

  1. 1. Project Report 2014 Effect of UV Rays on the Colonial & Cellular Morphology and Catalase Activity of Baker’s and wild yeast
  2. 2. Contents Abstract Objectives Introduction Materials & Methods Results Discussion References
  3. 3. Abstract Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, that is, in the range between 400 nm and 10 nm. UV light causes mutation in yeast cells and is lethal for its survival. Its main effect is on genes and DNA. In this study two strains of yeast cells (one wild type isolated from soil and 2nd one was baker’s yeast) were taken and mutated with UV light for 1 minute to check the effect of UV on the cellular and colonial morphology of yeast as well as on the catalase activity of yeast cells. Cellular and colonial morphology are affected due to UV exposure and so does catalase activity which is surprisingly increased after UV exposure. Objectives  To check the effect of UV on the colonial morphology of wild as well as baker’s yeast  To check the effect of UV on the cellular morphology of wild as well as baker’s yeast  To check the effect of UV on the catalase activity of wild as well as baker’s yeast Introduction Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, that is, in the range between 400 nm and 10 nm. It is so-named because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the color violet. These frequencies are invisible to most humans except those with aphakia. Near-UV is visible to a number of insects and birds.
  4. 4. Ultraviolet radiation in our environment is as common as sunlight. It generates genetic diversity and kills cells. When a DNA molecule is damaged by radiation and the damage is not repaired before the DNA replicates, the cell are likely to die. When a cell cannot divide to form viable progeny, we say that it has suffered reproductive death. The cell may still be able to metabolize and grow, but it cannot divide. If the radiation dose is high enough, cells can be killed outright -- metabolic death -- but other metabolic functions are far more resistant than reproduction. In single-celled organisms such as yeast, other fungi, bacteria, and algae, mutations are an important sublethal effect. Radiation also produces sublethal chromosomal changes and stimulates genetic recombination. Ultraviolet, this does not break the DNA chain outright, is selectively absorbed by the aromatic rings of the purine and pyrimidine bases, so its energy, being more concentrated, is as damaging as ionizing radiation. One particularly unpleasant result is the formation of pyrimidine dimers. In this reaction, two adjacent pyrimidines in the same chain (T-T, C-C, or T-C) become covalently bonded together. These dimers disrupt the local structure of the DNA double helix and prevent normal DNA replication. They are not much better than a double-strand break, as far as the cell is concerned. Figure: Effect of UV on DNA
  5. 5. Materials & Methods Apparatus  Petriplates  Test tubes  Test tube stand  Incubator  Spreader  Micropipettes  Microtips  UV Illuminator  Aluminium foil  Spirit lamp  Wire loop  Flask Reagent  3% H2O2 Media  YPD Agar Sr No Ingredients Amount (g/Litre) 1. Peptone 20 2. Dextrose 20 3. Yeast extract 10 4. Agar 15 For YPD Agar Peptone, Yeast extract and agar were dissolved in 700 ml of water and pH was set at 6.5 and then autoclaved it. Dextrose was separately mixed in 300ml of distilled water and after adjusting the pH autoclaved it for only 10 minutes and after cooling mixed with the rest of media.
  6. 6.  YPD Broth Sr No Ingredients Amount (g/Litre) 1. Peptone 20 2. Dextrose 20 3. Yeast extract 10 For YPD Broth Peptone and Yeast extract were dissolved in 700 ml of water and pH was set at 6.5 and then autoclaved it. Dextrose was separately mixed in 300ml of distilled water and after adjusting the pH autoclaved it for only 10 minutes and after cooling mixed with the rest of media. Yeast Strains Two yeast strains were used in this experiment. 1. One strain used was of baker’s yeast 2. One strain used was isolated from the soil sample taken from the garden of MMG Procedure Collection of the Yeast Sample  Soil sample was collected from the garden of the MMG department of the University of the Punjab.  Baker’s yeast strain was purchased from the market Spreading on YPD Agar plates  For soil sample, serial dilution was made and two dilutions (10-3 & 10-5 ) were spread on YPD Agar plates and incubated on 30°C for two days in order to achieve the crowding.
  7. 7. Figure: Crowding of yeast on 10-3 dilution of the soil sample  For Baker’s yeast sample, 0.5g of yeast was taken and mixed in about 10 ml autoclaved YPD broth and incubated on 37°C for 2-3 hours for enrichment and after that spread on the YPD agar plates and incubated. Figure: Crowding of yeast from baker’s sample
  8. 8. Isolation of Pure Strains Yeast strains were identified by performing wet mount and then purified by performing streaking on separate YPD agar plates. Figure: Streaking of the pure sample from soil Figure: Streaking of the pure sample of Baker’s yeast
  9. 9. Exposure of UV Radiations YPD broth was poured in two test tubes and autoclaved. Then single colony was picked from both type of strains and was dissolved in different test tubes. After that both test tubes were exposed to UV rays in UV Illuminator for 1 minute and after the exposure were immediately spreaded on YPD agar plates and covered with aluminum foil. After that these plates were incubated on 30°C for 48 hours. Analyzing the Effect of UV on Colony Morphology and Cellular Morphology  To check the effect of UV on colonial morphology, colonial morphology was noted before and after the UV exposure.  To check the effect of UV on cellular morphology, wet mount technique was performed before and after the exposure. Analyzing the effect of UV on Catalase Activity To check the effect of catalase activity, catalase test was performed before and after the UV exposure with the help of 3% H2O2 as a reagent. Results Effect of UV on the colonial morphology of Baker’s Yeast Sample Property Before UV Exposure After UV Exposure (1 min) 1. Form Circular Circular 2. Elevation Convex Raised 3. Margins Entire Entire 4. Color Cream colored Cream colored 5. Surface Smooth & Shiny Rough & Matt Table showing the effect of UV exposure on the colonial morphology of Baker’s yeast sample
  10. 10. Figure: Colony morphology of Baker’s yeast before UV exposure Figure: Colony morphology of Baker’s yeast after UV exposure Effect of UV on the colonial morphology of Wild type Yeast Sample Property Before UV Exposure After UV Exposure (1 min) 1. Form Circular Circular 2. Elevation Convex Raised 3. Margins Entire Entire 4. Color Cream colored Cream colored
  11. 11. 5. Surface Smooth & Shiny Rough & Matt Table showing the effect of UV exposure on the colonial morphology of wild type yeast sample Figure: Colony morphology of wild yeast before UV exposure Figure: Colony morphology of wild yeast after UV exposure Effect of UV on the Cellular Morphology of Baker’s Yeast Sample UV affects the cellular morphology of yeast somehow, mainly by damaging the cellular membranes.
  12. 12. Figure: Cellular morphology of Baker’s yeast before UV exposure Figure: Cellular morphology of Baker’s yeast after UV exposure Effect of UV on the Cellular Morphology of Wild Yeast Sample Figure: Cellular morphology of wild yeast before UV exposure
  13. 13. Figure: Cellular morphology of wild yeast after UV exposure Effect of UV on the Catalase Activity of Baker’s Yeast Sample Figure: Catalase activity of Baker’s yeast before UV exposure (Positive) Figure: Catalase activity of Baker’s yeast after UV exposure (Very Positive)
  14. 14. Effect of UV on the Catalase Activity of Wild Yeast Sample Figure: Catalase activity of wild yeast before UV exposure (Positive) Figure: Catalase activity of wild yeast after UV exposure (Very Positive) Discussion It is well known that Ultraviolet radiations are lethal for yeast cells. UV radiations cause mutations in yeast cells. A certain amount of mutational changes in the genome occurs as a natural process, though the probability is low.These radiations affect the cell growth rate as well as survival rate. These radiations also affect the colonial and cellular morphology of yeast cells. UV radiations also affect the enzymatic activity of yeast cells. After the UV exposure of 1 minute, In case of colonial morphology of baker’s yeast the form remains same i.e., circular, elevation is changed from convex to raised. Margins of colonies are not much affected and remain entire. Color of colonies is also not changed after UV exposure. Surface of colonies is affected and changed from smooth & shiny to matt and rough. Size of the colonies is not much changed after the treatment with UV. After the UV exposure of 1 minute, the results of the colonial morphology of the wild yeast strain were similar to those with the baker’s yeast strain.
  15. 15. In both strains of yeast survival rate also decreases and the effect of UV is mainly on the genetic level i.e., on genes. In case of cellular morphology, in both strains of yeast (wild type and baker’s yeast), after the exposure some changes occur. The most obvious one is that some nicks can be seen on the membrane of the yeast cells which were not present before the exposure. The lethal effect of the UV radiation is due to many causes, for instance-mutations of the genes or chromosomes, destruction of the cell-membrane or of some structures or cell organelles. For the analysis of enzymatic activity of catalase, catalase test was performed both before and after the UV exposure and results were noted. Both yeast strains were catalase positive and after the exposure of UV, their catalase activity increases. The effect of UV irradiation on the catalase activity of an aqueous yeast suspension was divisible into 4 periods. First, the period during which the cells lost their ability to form colonies, but during which no change in catalase activity was noted. Second, the period during which a considerable rise in catalase activity occurred. Third, a rather long period during which irradiation led to no diminution in the catalase activity of the maximally active suspension. Fourth, the period of photoinactivation of the intracellular enzyme, which was quite similar to that of the crystalline enzyme in vitro. So, by this analysis, both samples were in second period. References Aldous Jg, Stewart Dkr. The effect of ultraviolet radiation upon enzymatic activity and viability of the yeast cell. Can J Med Sci. 1952 Dec;30(6):561–570. E. Tomkinson, S. Wei, Z.Y. You. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast: recent progress andimplications. 1998. Nucleic Acids Mol. Biol., 12:125-139. Kaplan Jg. The alteration of intracellular enzymes. II. The relation between the surface and the biological activities of altering agents. J Gen Physiol. 1954 Nov 20;38(2):197–211.

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