Blog resource: http://tinyurl.com/6cu7yvh         <br />This workbook is printed for the Making ATP unit. As you go throug...
List six cellular process that use ATP as a source of energy. </li></ul>3.7 Cell Respiration<br /><ul><li>Define cell resp...
The ______________________ release of ________________ in the form of _____________ from _______________________________ i...
State the word and symbol equations for the process of cell respiration. </li></ul>Word:<br />Symbol:<br /><ul><li>Identif...
Identify the two components of the cell in which respiration takes place.
Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic in terms of cell respiration.
Label the diagram of aerobic cell respiration below. </li></ul>7524751460500<br /><ul><li>  Label the diagram of anaerobic...
Explain how end-product inhibition controls the rate of ATP production. </li></ul>8.1/C3 Cell Respiration (AHL/Option cont...
These are particularly important in cell respiration and photosynthesis.
Complete the table below to compare oxidation and reduction reactions. </li></ul>OXIDATIONREDUCTIONElectrons are…lostOxyge...
  List two ways in which phosphorylation is used in cell respiration.
  In the space below, draw a diagram to show the process of glycolysis. </li></ul>          Include phosporylation, lysis,...
  Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of the mitochondrion as seen in a TEM image.    </li></ul>Include the inn...
  List two electron carriers that are used in cell respiration.
 State the final destination of electron carriers produced in the Krebs Cycle.
  In the space below, draw a diagram of the Krebs cycle. </li></ul>Include formation of citrate, oxidation, decarboxylatio...
Six carbonsFour carbonsThree carbonsTwo carbonsOne carbonsZero carbons
Annotate the diagram below with the stages of the electron transport chain and oxidative  </li></ul>phosphorylation. Inclu...
Name (with reasons) three tissues in the body that contain high numbers of mitochondria. </li></ul>Tissue ReasonMuscle<br ...
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Essential Biology: Making ATP Workbook (HL/ SL OpC)

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For the IB Biology course. Includes Core and AHL content for Respiration and Photosynthesis, as well as The Greenhouse Effect.

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Essential Biology: Making ATP Workbook (HL/ SL OpC)

  1. 1. Blog resource: http://tinyurl.com/6cu7yvh <br />This workbook is printed for the Making ATP unit. As you go through, check off the assessment statements. <br />ATP<br /><ul><li>Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy.
  2. 2. List six cellular process that use ATP as a source of energy. </li></ul>3.7 Cell Respiration<br /><ul><li>Define cell respiration.
  3. 3. The ______________________ release of ________________ in the form of _____________ from _______________________________ in cells.
  4. 4. State the word and symbol equations for the process of cell respiration. </li></ul>Word:<br />Symbol:<br /><ul><li>Identify two organic molecules, other than glucose, which could be used for respiration.
  5. 5. Identify the two components of the cell in which respiration takes place.
  6. 6. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic in terms of cell respiration.
  7. 7. Label the diagram of aerobic cell respiration below. </li></ul>7524751460500<br /><ul><li> Label the diagram of anaerobic cell respiration below. </li></ul>89535011684000<br /><ul><li> Complete the table below, comparing aerobic and anaerobic respiration. </li></ul>AerobicAnaerobicHexose sugar input in both types of respirationOxygen in2 ATP producedPyruvate as an intermediate compound in both types of respirationYeastAnimalsCarbon dioxide producedWater produced<br /><ul><li> Complete the table below summarizing the events of aerobic cell respiration. </li></ul>ReactionLocationPurposeATP yieldGlycolysis2Matrix of the mitochondrionConvert pyruvate (3C) to acetyl CoA (2C)0Krebs CycleInner mitochondrial membraneOxidative phosphorylation<br /><ul><li>Label the diagram below with the correct processes, locations and compounds:
  8. 8. Explain how end-product inhibition controls the rate of ATP production. </li></ul>8.1/C3 Cell Respiration (AHL/Option content)<br /><ul><li>Many reactions in living things can be classified as either oxidation or reduction reactions.
  9. 9. These are particularly important in cell respiration and photosynthesis.
  10. 10. Complete the table below to compare oxidation and reduction reactions. </li></ul>OXIDATIONREDUCTIONElectrons are…lostOxygen is…Hydrogen is…<br /><ul><li> Define phosphorylation.
  11. 11. List two ways in which phosphorylation is used in cell respiration.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14. In the space below, draw a diagram to show the process of glycolysis. </li></ul> Include phosporylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation. <br /><ul><li> Explain the link reaction, including oxidative decarboxylation and conversion of pyruvate to </li></ul> acetyl CoA and CO2. <br /><ul><li> The link reaction produces Acetyl CoA (2C) from the input substrate (usually pyruvate). </li></ul> The extra carbon is released as carbon dioxide. Acetyl CoA can also be produced from <br /> fatty acids. When the fatty acid chain contains an even number of carbons, no CO2 is <br /> released. How many Acetyl CoA molecules can be produced with the following fatty acids? <br /><ul><li>23C b. 18C c. 31C
  15. 15. Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of the mitochondrion as seen in a TEM image. </li></ul>Include the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, matrix, christae, mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes and a scale bar. <br /><ul><li> Complete the table below with the functions of the structures of the mitochondrion.</li></ul> How is each structure adapted to help maximize efficiency of respiration? <br />Structure: Function: Adapted to increase efficiency by: Outer membraneInner membrane(including christae)Matrix Mitochondrial DNA and ribosomesInter-membrane space<br /><ul><li> What is an electron carrier?
  16. 16. List two electron carriers that are used in cell respiration.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. State the final destination of electron carriers produced in the Krebs Cycle.
  20. 20. In the space below, draw a diagram of the Krebs cycle. </li></ul>Include formation of citrate, oxidation, decarboxylation, substrate-level phosphorylation (ATP formation) and production of electron carriers. <br /><ul><li> Identify compounds in cell respiration that contain:
  21. 21. Six carbonsFour carbonsThree carbonsTwo carbonsOne carbonsZero carbons
  22. 22. Annotate the diagram below with the stages of the electron transport chain and oxidative </li></ul>phosphorylation. Include generation of a H+ concentration gradient in the inter-membrane space, movement of electrons, oxidative phosphorylation by ATP synthase, use of O2 as the terminal electron acceptor<br />-23812516065500<br /><ul><li> In the space below, using the term ‘chemiosmosis’, describe how ATP synthase works.
  23. 23. Name (with reasons) three tissues in the body that contain high numbers of mitochondria. </li></ul>Tissue ReasonMuscle<br /><ul><li> Explain why high levels of lactic acid might be found in an athlete’s blood test, post-exercise.
  24. 24. Explain why ATP yield in aerobic cell respiration is so much higher than in anaerobic </li></ul> respiration. (Long answer question – think about knock-on effects of reduced O2). 8 marks<br />Link question:<br />Draw and annotate sketch graphs of the effects of the following variables on rate of respiration – temperature, CoA concentration, pH. <br />Sample exam questions: <br />Practice these in your own time. <br />Describe the role of Acetyl CoA in the metabolism of lipids. (2 marks)<br />Explain chemiosmosis as it occurs in respiration. (2 marks)<br />Explain the process of aerobic respiration, including oxidative phosphorylation (8 marks)<br />Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration, including yield of ATP. (8 marks)<br />Interesting reading: <br />Nobel prizewinners: Krebs and Lipmann:<br />http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1953/ <br />Sample data analysis question (from IB QuestionBank)<br />At the start of glycolysis, glucose is phosphorylated to produce glucose 6-phosphate, which is converted into fructose 6-phosphate. A second phosphorylation reaction is then carried out, in which fructose 6-phosphate is converted into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphofructokinase. <br />80962564198500Biochemists measured the enzyme activity of phosphofructokinase (the rate at which it catalyzed the reaction) at different concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate. The enzyme activity was measured with a low concentration of ATP and a high concentration of ATP in the reaction mixture. The graph below shows the results. <br />(a)(i)Using only the data in the above graph, outline the effect of increasing fructose 6-phosphate concentration on the activity of phosphofructokinase, at a low ATP concentration.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(ii)Explain how increases in fructose 6-phosphate concentration affect the activity of the enzyme.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />........................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(b)(i)Outline the effect of increasing the ATP concentration on the activity of phosphofructokinase.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(ii)Suggest an advantage to living organisms of the effect of ATP on phosphofructokinase.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(1)<br />(Total 7 marks)<br /><ul><li>Photosynthesis
  25. 25. Define photosynthesis</li></ul>The conversion of ________________________ into _______________________ in plants. <br /><ul><li>Write a word equation and balanced symbol equation for the process of photosynthesis.
  26. 26. Word:
  27. 27. Symbol
  28. 28. Glucose is a product of photosynthesis. It can be used directly in respiration, stored as starch or converted to glucose.
  29. 29. Distinguish between the functions of starch and cellulose.
  30. 30. Starch:
  31. 31. Cellulose:
  32. 32. Identify and outline the process of condensation to form a disaccharide.
  33. 33. Explain why a plant which is left in the dark for a long period of time will test negative for starch.
  34. 34. Light from the Sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colours).
  35. 35. Outline the properties of these wavelengths of light:
  36. 36. Wavelength (nm)10-400400-500500-650700-8000.8-1000µmNameUltravioletInfra-redPhotosynthesis?NoNoVisible?NoYesYesYesNoEnergyVery HighLowFrequencyVery HighLow
  37. 37. State the name of the photosynthetic pigment and its location in green plants.
  38. 38. Name: ________________________Location: ______________________________
  39. 39. Distinguish between action and absorption spectra for photosynthesis. </li></ul>Action: <br />Absorption:<br /><ul><li>Use the spreadsheet here to produce action spectrum for photosynthesis and absorption spectrum for chlorophyll: https://www.box.net/shared/cs6jvzv8n4
  40. 40. In the space below, draw a graph showing the action and absorption spectra for chlorophyll. Annotate the diagram to show why leaves appear green. </li></ul>6381758572500<br />Leaves appear green because…<br /><ul><li>Summarise the two main stages of photosynthesis:</li></ul>InputOutcomeLight-dependent reactionsLight energy is used to…Light independent reactions<br /><ul><li>Define rate, with regard to reactions.
  41. 41. Explain how the rate of photosynthesis can be measured directly and indirectly.
  42. 42. Direct Measurement 1Product:Explanation:
  43. 43. Direct Measurement 2Product:Explanation:
  44. 44. Indirect MeasurementOutcome:Explanation:
  45. 45. Outline the effects of the following variables on the rate of photosynthesis.
  46. 46. Sketch and annotate a graph for each one.
  47. 47. Light intensityNote: light intensity is not the same as wavelength or frequency. Light intensity refers to the amount of light of a given wavelength which is available to the plant. Light intensity is high at the equator, in the summer or at midday. TemperatureCarbon dioxide concentration</li></ul>8.2/C4 Photosynthesis<br /><ul><li>In the space below, draw and label a diagram of a chloroplast, as seen under a TEM. </li></ul> Include thylakoid membranes and thylakoid spaces, stroma, granum, chloroplast <br /> envelope and a scale bar. Annotate the diagram with the function of each component and the <br /> way it is adapted to increased efficiency. <br /><ul><li> Photosynthesis consists of two stages: light dependent and light independent reactions.
  48. 48. Define photolysis</li></ul>b. Define photophosphorylation<br />c. Define carbon fixation<br /><ul><li> Explain what happens to an electron when it is excited by photons of light.
  49. 49. Annotate the diagram below to explain the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. </li></ul>Include photolysis, photophosphorylation (and chemiosmosis), movement of electrons, generation of a H+ gradient using a proton pump, reduction of NADP+ by ferredoxin. <br />-266700392430<br /><ul><li> Identify the two products of the light-dependent reactions which are carried through to the light- independent reactions.
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52. What is the name of the 5-carbon compound present in the Calvin cycle?
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Define carboxylation and decarboxylation.
  55. 55. In the space below, draw a diagram to explain the cycle of reactions that occur in the light-independent stages of photosynthesis. Include carboxylation of RuBP to glycerate-3-phosphate by rubisco, reduction to triose phosphate, formation of glucose phosphate and reformation of RuBP. </li></ul>A limiting factor is the one factor which is in shortest supply or is preventing the rate of a reaction from increasing. If this factor were increased, rate of reaction would increase until another plateau was reached (a different factor is then limiting). <br /> <br /><ul><li>Explain how the following factors can limit the rate of photosynthesis of green plants: </li></ul> (give reasons specific to the reactions of photosynthesis)<br />FactorWhich stages of photosynthesis are limited and how?Carbon dioxide concentrationLow CO2 means less carbon can be fixed from the atmosphere in the Calvin cycle. Output of glucose is reduced and RuBP builds up. Light intensityTemperature<br /><ul><li> Using the graph below, deduce, with reasons, the most important limiting factor in the </li></ul> rate of photosynthesis of this green plant. <br />209550164465<br /><ul><li> Compare photosynthesis and respiration. </li></ul> Take time to think about all the connections – reactions, structures, products and processes.<br />Cell RespirationPhotosynthesisSimilaritiesDifferences<br />5.2 The Greenhouse Effect<br />The light dependent reactions of photosynthesis ‘fix’ CO2 from the atmosphere into organic molecules which are used for respiration in plants and animals. Respiration and combustion return CO2 to the atmosphere, whereas decomposition returns carbon to the atmosphere as methane. <br />Note: the enhanced greenhouse effect is NOT the same as the hole in the ozone layer. Read ahead to G3 Impacts of Humans on Ecosystems to see the distinction. <br /><ul><li>Annotate the diagram to show the carbon cycle and processes involved. </li></ul>ARespiration CITATION TayGreEff l 1033 (1)BCDE<br /><ul><li>Outline some of the methods used to measure or estimate atmospheric carbon dioxide. </li></ul>Recent history:<br />Geological history:<br /><ul><li>The topic of increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere has been the source of intense debate with regard to climate change in recent years. This graph shows the famous ‘Keeling Curve’ from Mauna Loa laboratory in Hawaii. Find out more here:
  56. 56. http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/globalchange/keeling_curve/01.html
  57. 57. Describe the overall trend shown in the graph.
  58. 58. Explain the annual fluctuations in CO2 levels. </li></ul>Peaks: <br />Troughs: <br /><ul><li>Suggest one human impact and one natural cause that could have led to the overall trend shown in the graph:
  59. 59. Anthropogenic:
  60. 60. Natural:
  61. 61. Identify three greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide.
  62. 62. Explain the greenhouse effect with the aid of a diagram. Include short-wave and long-wave radiation.
  63. 63. Explain how increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases lead to an enhanced greenhouse effect.
  64. 64. Outline some of the possible consequences of a global temperature rise on arctic ecosystems.
  65. 65. Ice coverage:
  66. 66. Climate changes:
  67. 67. Niches:
  68. 68. Plant distributions:
  69. 69. Animal populations:
  70. 70. Outline the precautionary principle.
  71. 71. Describe how the precautionary principle can be applied to anthropogenic climate destabilisation.
  72. 72. Give two other examples of the precautionary principle in effect in Biology or Medicine.
  73. 73. Evaluate the precautionary principle as a justification for taking strong action in response to the threats posed by the enhanced greenhouse effect. What are some of the steps that we could take? This video might help: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mF_anaVcCXg
  74. 74. Take significant actionTake no actionGlobal climate destabilization is…TrueFalse
  75. 75. Conclusion:</li></ul>Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.2. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.3. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.4. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.5. Taylor, Stephen. Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com.6. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. http://click4biology.info/.7. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007. http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/migrated/production-app2.ibo.org/publication/7/part/2/chapter/1.html.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />

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