Essential Biology 6.6 & 11.1 Reproduction Core & AHL


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Workbook for the core and AHL content.

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Essential Biology 6.6 & 11.1 Reproduction Core & AHL

  1. 1. Blog resource: Click4Biology: <br />Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word). The first example has been done for you. Highlight all objective 1 command terms in yellow and complete these before class. Highlight all objective 2 and 3 command terms in green – these will be part of the discussions in class. After class, go back and review them. <br />Complete the self-assessment rubric before submitting to Moodle. Avoid printing this if possible. <br /><ul><li>Define the following:
  2. 2. GameteHaploid sex cell, which fuses with another gamete in fertilization. Sperm and eggs.CITATION Ste104 l 1033 (1) OogenesisSpermatogenesisFertilisationGestation
  3. 3. -1016038735000Label the structures of the mature sperm and egg and calculate the magnification of each image. </li></ul>afollicle cellshbiheadcjdkelfMagnification:gMagnification:<br /><ul><li>Label this diagram of the male reproductive system.
  4. 4. avas deferensbcdefgh
  5. 5. Annotate this light micrograph of testis tissue.
  6. 6. ainterstitial cellsproduce testosterone. bcd
  7. 7. State the roles of the following hormones in spermatogenesis.</li></ul>Luteinizing hormone (LH)TestosteroneFollicle stimulating hormone (FSH)<br /><ul><li>State three other roles of the male sexual hormone testosterone.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Outline the process of spermatogenesis in the testes.
  11. 11. Outline the role of the following structures in semen production. </li></ul>epididymisseminal vesicleprostate gland<br /><ul><li>Label this diagram of the female reproductive system.
  12. 12. Annotate each structure with its function.
  13. 13. uterusMuscular womb for development of fetusName these structures:gkidneyhij
  14. 14. Label and annotate these structures of the ovary.
  15. 15. agerminal epitheliumConstant mitosis produces primary follicles. bcdef
  16. 16. Outline oogenesis.
  17. 17. Compare spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
  18. 18. SpermatogenesisOogenesisNumber of gametes produced per primary cellFormation of gametesConstant after pubertyNumber of meiotic divisionsMethod of release of gametesOvulation, controlled by LHNumber of gametes releasedMillions Hormones usedLocation
  19. 19. Outline the roles and origins of these menstrual cycle hormones.
  20. 20. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)Origin: pituitary gland (brain)Role:Luteinzing Hormone (LH)Origin: Role:OestrogenOrigin: ovaryRole:ProgesteroneOrigin: Role:
  21. 21. State the role of these two hormones in the female reproductive system.
  22. 22. HCG:
  23. 23. Oxytocin:
  24. 24. Deduce the hormones and events required to complete this concept map.
  25. 25. You may print this page.
  26. 26. The graph below shows the human menstrual cycle.
  27. 27. Sketch the changes in the endometrium over the cycle.
  28. 28. Outline the events of the menstrual cycle, including the roles of the various hormones.
  29. 29. 1-4 DaysFollicular phaseEvents:5-14 DaysOvulatory phaseEvents:14-28 DaysLuteal phaseEvents:
  30. 30. Distinguish between fertilization and pregnancy.
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Describe the process of fertilization of an egg by a sperm. </li></ul>acrosome reaction<br /><ul><li>The contraceptive pill manipulates the hormones of the menstrual cycle in order to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
  33. 33. The combined pill contains oestrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone). Explain how this combination might prevent pregnancy.
  34. 34. The package of pills usually contains 21 pills of the hormone and 7 ‘placebo’ pills. These placebo pills can contain an iron supplement. Deduce the function of these pills.
  35. 35. The ‘rhythm method’ is used in family planning and contraception. </li></ul>Identify the days of the cycle during which a woman is:<br /><ul><li>Most likely to conceive
  36. 36. Least likely to conceive.
  37. 37. Evaluate the following methods of contraception.
  38. 38. Effectiveness for…ContraceptionProtection against STI’sOral contraceptive pillRhythm methodCondoms
  39. 39. Outline the process of in-vitro fertilisation. </li></ul>1562100-36118801FSH and LH are given in high doses to the potential mother in order to stimulate production of multiple ova. 23456<br /><ul><li>Discuss the ethical issues of IVF. </li></ul>Arguments forArguments against<br />Reading: IVF Wins Nobel Prize for Medicine 2010! <br /><ul><li>HCG is released early in the pregnancy if a blastocyst implants on the endometrium.
  40. 40. State the origin of HCG.
  41. 41. Outline two functions of HCG in early pregnancy.
  42. 42. FunctionAdvantageInhibits…FSH and LHMaintains…
  43. 43. HCG can be detected in the urine. Identify the type of immune system molecule used to detect HCG in pregnancy kits.
  44. 44. State the method used to produce these molecules for the test kits.
  45. 45. Early embryonic development.
  46. 46. State the method of cell division used in embryonic development.
  47. 47. Outline the events leading up to implantation of the blastocyst on the endometrium.
  48. 48. The developing fetus is protected and served by the placenta, amniotic sac and umbilical cord.
  49. 49. State the function of the amniotic sac and fluid. 266065-63500Identify the hormones released by the placenta. List the materials exchanged between the fetal and maternal blood. Mother to fetus:Fetus to mother:
  50. 50. Explain how the following structures of the placenta aid its function.
  51. 51. Umbilical cordVilliInter-villus spacesBlood supplyMembraneRough endoplasmic reticulum in cells
  52. 52. Birth is controlled by positive feedback mechanisms in the body, which is in contrast to the negative feedback mechanisms of homeostasis.
  53. 53. State the name of the ‘birth hormone’.
  54. 54. Explain why regulation of this hormone is classed as positive feedback control.
  55. 55. Outline the process of birth and its hormonal control.
  56. 56. Progesterone levels drop
  57. 57. Fetal head engages in cervix
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
  63. 63. </li></ul>Links across the syllabus:<br /><ul><li>How do sexual reproduction and meiosis ensure variation in the population?
  64. 64. How does the oxygen in the maternal blood get into the fetal blood?
  65. 65. What similarities are there between the structures of the placenta and other human body systems?
  66. 66. How are twins produced and how does polygenic inheritance lead to variation in some characteristics (e.g. skin colour) between non-fraternal twins?
  67. 67. How does gene expression lead to differences in the phenotypes of fraternal twins, despite their sharing DNA?
  68. 68. What is prenatal testing and how is it applied in pregnancy?
  69. 69. What are the risks of late-age pregnancy?</li></ul>How many more links across the syllabus can you find and explain?<br />Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Taylor, Stephen. 6.6 Reproduction Core (Presentation). Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, December 2010. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.3. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.4. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.5. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.6. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007. —. IB Biology QuestionBank 1st Edition. [CD-Rom] Oxford, UK : IBO, 2005.<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />