Essential Biology 4.3 Theoretical Genetics


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Essential Biology 4.3 Theoretical Genetics

  1. 1. Blog resource: Click4Biology: <br />Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word. Highlight all objective 1 command terms in yellow and complete these before class. Highlight all objective 2 and 3 command terms in green – these will be part of the discussions in class. After class, go back and review them. <br />Complete the self-assessment rubric before submitting to Moodle. Avoid printing this if possible. <br /><ul><li>Define the following:
  2. 2. GenotypeGene expressionPhenotype Dominant allele Recessive allele Codominant allelesHomozygous HeterozygousCarrierMixed phenotypeAutosomeSex chromosome Gene locusMonohybrid crossTest cross
  3. 3. Outline the conventions for notation of genotypes, using one example of each:</li></ul>Dominant/recessive allelesCodominant allelesSex-linked traits<br /><ul><li>The allele for tall plants is dominant over the allele for dwarf plants.
  4. 4. State the possible genotypes of a tall plant.
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Explain how a test cross could be used to determine the genotype of a tall plant.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Mendel is known as the father of genetics for his extensive experimental work with peas and different types of crosses.
  11. 11. Complete the punnet grid below to show the outcome of the monohybrid cross that results in peas of different colours.
  12. 12. Complete the punnet grid below to show the possible outcomes of a cross between two members of the F1 generation. Describe all genotypes produced.
  13. 13. Human ABO blood types follow a codominant inheritance pattern.
  14. 14. Describe what is meant by “some genes have multiple alleles.”</li></ul>510540032702500<br /><ul><li>Complete the table below to show how blood type is inherited.
  15. 15. allelesiIAIBiIAIB
  16. 16. Highlight the genotype and phenotype which is an example of codominance.
  17. 17. Complete this pedigree chart to show the inheritance of blood types in this family.
  18. 18. 47625031115
  19. 19. Sickle cell is another example of codominance.
  20. 20. State the genotypes and phenotypes of these individuals.
  21. 21. HbAHbAHbAHbsHbsHbsgenotypephenotype
  22. 22. Predict the phenotype ratios of offspring in the following crosses. Show all your working, and set it out as expected. Take care with notation.
  23. 23. Carrier mother with affected father
  24. 24. Affected father with unaffected mother.
  25. 25. Carrier mother with carrier father.
  26. 26. Explain how the prevalence of sickle cell in regions of Africa is an example of natural selection in action.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. The pedigree chart below shows a family affected by sickle cell:
  32. 32. -9525116649500Deduce the genotype of each individual with a letter.
  33. 33. AFBGCHD$E#
  34. 34. Calculate the likelihood of any further children produced by E and her # having sickle cell anemia.
  35. 35. Male $ is healthy but of unknown genotype. Calculate the likelihood of any children produced with female D having sickle cell anemia. Show all working.
  36. 36. Some traits are autosomal whereas others are carried on sex chromosomes.
  37. 37. Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Annotate the diagram to distinguish between the X and Y chromosomes.
  41. 41. Outline the role of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Outline how non-disjunction can lead to gender-related chromosome abnormalities.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Some inherited disorders are associated with gender.
  50. 50. Define sex-linkage.
  51. 51. State two examples of sex-linked genetic disorders.
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Explain why sex-linked disorders are more common in males than females.
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60. Explain why human females can be homozygous or heterozygous for sex-linked genes, where males cannot.
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64. The allele for colour blindness (n) is recessive to the allele for normal vision (N). This gene is carried in a non-homologous region on the X chromosome. Complete the table below to show the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals with regard to colour blindness. </li></ul>FemaleMaleNormalXN XNAffectedCarrierNot possible! Why? <br /><ul><li>In the space below, complete a punnet grid to show a cross between a normal male and a carrier female. What is the expected ratio of phenotypes?
  65. 65. Hemophilia is a blood-clotting disorder that is also recessive and sex-linked.
  66. 66. State the normal function of the gene associated with hemophilia.
  67. 67. Describe the effects and symptoms of hemophilia.
  68. 68.
  69. 69.
  70. 70. Use the pedigree chart to deduce the possible genotype(s) of the named individuals.
  71. 71. -2095563500LeopoldHelenAliceMaryRubertBobBritney
  72. 72. Outline one form of genetic engineering used to help patients with hemophilia.
  73. 73.
  74. 74.
  75. 75.
  76. 76.
  77. 77.
  78. 78. Suggest reasons why the frequency of some disease-related alleles might be increasing in the population.
  79. 79.
  80. 80. </li></ul>Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.2. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.3. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.4. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.5. Taylor, Stephen. Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />