Conservation of Biodiversity (HL)


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For the IB Biology course, Option G: Ecology and Conservation (HL).

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Conservation of Biodiversity (HL)

  1. 1. the number of undlvlduals of a specie 5 -the sum or I the tolerance rating of / lhespecles BI = E(ni X ai) N total number cl Individuals collected Conservation of Biodiversity Stephen Taylor Bandung International School
  2. 2. Species can be used as an indicator of environmental health: = w-r---"-M-IN-~'-*--'-- , ,_, _,__ Some species are not tolerant of pollution, so will not be Uddvlianr firherivfic YWO-nu-znror l91b¢lIIIno(l| irveltlclbl 01 HIV‘ . ' I I present In water or an environment which IS polluted. How many <! :"¢rrrI' nnmar um‘. pan. ‘ 591025 can rot. coon-‘ (on you spa‘ am hm sorctni Other species can tolerate pollution or environmental stress and will thrive under these conditions. Indicator species are those which can be used to identify an area as clean or polluted, by their presence or absence. River Pollution Water Quality mulnouaurv mu-r LJVI 5- mamas: Dr umna I In Ih-UVIIJI l‘ L‘! 'InV {II II I IUHWVJ l)1C I Ir—. r-nuI-. ,- r In. rmcr Yhv ml-mu Ira: me am my amneeut. -our-us p. nu-rmumaxxmn Vu wuvklv Ira gun. It cw -um - Inlun RN mod: indu -man -: m by . »,. w now run ; you In: robs mam they :1 una. -a Iu zxnxm . lE mnnrl my Ire-1!) suwlivr I rmrxuw . r U! V'A pium mu Yr menu» 3-: (I-1: Imn ralruniia http: //www. riverlee. org. uk/ watqua/ watqua-I/ walqua-0-tswf I 1 9_ 8 Lichens can be used as indicators of air pollution: ‘ii 2 I In. ,. ,.x In L. .d:1(I‘y . unxk I’ lH'VlJIvtv‘lli"-V xa | du‘u’r -wan um-um ru. re»: re rnimq-ruvtx. I Add co in y-~m. II ycrq -.1 II v~ev. _ng; w., r«: mI: nIr cuI, A 4 lddI. a?vrI. 'Vtercltt-evuu A ‘ntwminmmflvu ‘ Ln-rm. -xI~v-u. ir~: .:I l've>'Irni1uu4ILu1 Bklcaotrvmum-yd 5 ()vCIlxJll7rmnIkI; r-1'. "- WDPdnvIiaI: vuI1 _ . ¢0tIl‘1I. C owe live «nu. II; A by Ira- r. .n. -Irun I I r». .-m. «. m.uu: .«»«r: I.-a-(nus. Ev ID Iwbtxfiu I «V; Dean rwvr. V‘! ., I-vo. In-e. -4.». I--nun. I. .. . .w<. y- 1 , _‘, _"_J‘, r’_v, ,'“”_. ).W¢, V,_, ,_« hup: //www. l's. l'ed. us/ wildflowers/ interestingl ‘ ' ""“"""' “""‘ """ 4'" | ifhens/ bi0|ogV-/ gr0w[hf0rm§_sh[m| http: //www. riverwatch. ab. ca/ how_to_monitor/ invc-rt_interprcting-indcxxfm (5 0
  3. 3. Kick sampling can be used to collect invertebrates: 1. Collect data for Simpson's Diversity Index: _ N(N-1) _ Zn(n—1) (a high value indicates high diversity, suggesting a healthy stream) ohttpz/ /www. microscopy-uk. org. uk/ mag/ art97b/ stream. htmI A biotic index is a measure of the health 2. Calculate a biotic index: Of 3“ eC05YStem- lntolerant species score highly, the number of so a clean ecosystem will have a higher lthesum of‘ l"dl"id“a"°fa “mes thewerance rating of biotic index than a polluted ecosystem. I / the species Z(ni X ai) Tolerance rating: Bl B , . N 10 = clean water only total number of Individuals C°"eCted 1 = tolerates very polluted water http: //www. aquatext. com/ tables/ bioticind. htm o
  4. 4. Compare the biotic indexes of these two sites: the number of individuals of a species the tolerance rating of the species ‘the sum of'_ | =; (n. x a. total number of individuals collected Bl B downstream
  5. 5. Compare the biotic indexes of these two sites: the number of individuals of a species A upstream the tolerance rating of the species ‘the sum of‘ _ | =Z(ni X 3; I total number of individuals collected H 2 1-3: In BI- Z(n. xai) m--u - —: = -I-III N -I 32:: BI BI: Z(niXail = N
  6. 6. Compare the biotic indexes of these two sites: the number of A upstream individuals of a species . the Sum of. the tolerance rating of the species BI _ ni X 3; N total number of individuals collected
  7. 7. .‘'». /‘'r *2. —I Rye; . (1.4- Extinction has always been a part of evolution. Those species that are best adapted to their environment will survive to reproduce. Those which are not, die. When environmental change occurs, the new selection pressures can lead to the extinction of previously successful organisms. Once a species has lost the capacity to reproduce or to recover, it is only a matter of time before the last individual dies and the species is extinct. Although many species have gone extinct due to natural processes and phenomena, the impacts of humans on ecosystems has greatly accelerated the rate of species extinction in the world. 3‘ _'*I the end of a species — the last individual has died. The Permian Mass Extinction ‘p : . . a,Iat'II3t-: http: //www. youtubc. com/ watch? v=hDbz2dpI: bhQ I I What anthropogenic factors lead to extinction? 0 habitat destruction Iv pollution 0 overfishing or hunting 0 climate change - invasive species (3.. We,
  8. 8. Extinction of the Dodo (Raphuscucu/ Iatus) Habitat: Mauritius Cause: Dutch arrival in the 1600's - deforestation and habitat loss 'V'a“"“”5 — hunting for food — Invasive species — rats, dogs, cats on ships Why did it die out so quickly? — flightless - short legs — no behavioural adaptation for avoiding predators Mythbusters: Fascination with Dodos Dodo: Stuffed by human activity http: //www. -.1mnh. org/ exhibitions/ expeditions/ treasure llllllt/ / W“ -, '0llllIht‘-COIII/ alth'3'= “'_Tl'| |CK3(33 _I"0ssil/ Trcasures/ Dodo/ dodo. html? dinos ” U
  9. 9. Debate: Should pandas be left to go extinct? Read the article and comments here: http: //www. guardian. co. uk/ environment/2009 / sep/23/panda-extinction-chris-packham 6 What are the ideas put forward by Packham and Wright? should We Let Pandas Go Extinct? Q 4 What do you think? p Q ouuu -It E Q Q http: //www. youtubc. com/ watch? v=W4nFwAvZ00l 6
  10. 10. Nature Reserves Nature reserves are areas of aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems that have been protected in order to conserve biodiversity, heritage or are home to unique species. Reserves may be privately owned, though most are national and protected by law. Reserves can have huge benefits: - control of invasive species — control of human exploitation — legal protection for endangered species - opportunities for research - restoration of degraded areas Examples in Indonesia: — Ujung Kulon, West Java - Komodo Island, Lombok - Bunaken, marine reserve http: //www. nationalparks-worldwide. info/ indoncsia. htm I I Sumatra / I.‘ it I'l‘i I c ': .i X'*. i' ; » *‘. ' _ r 'i', ,. J. -.i» H -. .- U| U‘_-‘. Iron N. IIon. Il P. Ii$. ll -1 , n Km-‘-. ito. i lslmids . ' - . f' outfit ; ‘~ Uil‘ JNNI C7 6 Java u uni Kulon : :lou. -lP. ii1I "'”" """" UJUF“. -' Olufori Halion: IlPark UJl. ‘.’| l‘, Kulofl Fvr. iisI. .'. -I _i, .,-, ., . (1,: .: mli. I http: //www. lombokmarine. com/ images/ u j ungmap. jpg I l
  11. 11. Nature Reserves sum, Bigger is better! M — larger habitats ’ » — more resources & breeding sites — more niches V_. . . l.. : ': .! 1' ' J’ - some migration _ _ b — more biodiversity U" Q. I. "_". Of! — established ecosystems "-1"”-"“-"* "~ - larger species can 'hide' """"'°" """"” it Javan Rhino found in Ujung Kulonl .1 _. Q , j, , , T, 1 «. . Ri'A Ci N 7 l/ '-| ,JNN‘u (1 20 miles: u uni, Kulon J ‘lava . ’I2|ou. I| Park """' """" U10-*1’. flu-‘on I _ _ _ _ ‘J _- ‘I RntionnlFark r. .. ' A -_ U): .-In‘, K1J. ’n(l Pm‘. 'IsL. (.': http: //www. youtube. com/ watch? v=mTrHzXGiG8s 1 1 I. in . - (i. ;. http: //www. lombokmarine. com/ images/ ujungmap. jpg I l
  12. 12. ZAMBIA Nature reserves: the corridor effect . .{l“§§. . ”‘°‘°"""" Lima»: - Greenbelts or hedgerows provide natural mum corridors for the migration, foraging and "'““"""""“ _ _ 0* zwuaws spreading or local species. ”“'“__, _m. m '~a-a Without the corridor effect, species would be m, ,,, , Fm, “ isolated and unable to expand over a larger area. . $W__, "mum! " : _,, ,,_ --'fi'= %- . { ' I Muhahpy’ . .’. lr: t. D} . E . V '. ':i¥. "€l'_+ ifllél G8torone“ '_“m§m_ 22:: 22=2vz—-gigs W W M ‘mm, ° :7. 2:7.“ uanomu nu nu rams Where nature reserves are joined, species are able to move over a huge range of environmental He gehog tunnels. http: //www. cartoonstock. com/ COnd O n5 directory/ R/Road_kil| .asp *5 http: //www. sa-venues. com/ game-reserves / m aps/ b0tswana_res. gif 0 hllp: //www. shs. utexas. edu/ resource/2006/ HB-Fcncclinc2/images/ hcdgcromjpg U
  13. 13. Nature reserves: the edge effect G'e“‘“’F"’- “mat fragmentation: This describes the boundaries between habitats or ecosystems. One example is the boundary between forestry and cleared or agricultural land. The boundary is not a 'wall' — there is disturbance from the outside which extends into the forest. If the forest is more fragmented and has more edges, more of the forest will be disturbed. jerge reserve fragmented reserve 2030 htrp: //upload. wikimcdia. org/ wikipcdia/ Geommons/2/2b/ Grasp_africa. jpg extent of disturbance The edge effect is a benefit to some species: Cowbirds forage in open areas, but lay eggs just inside woodlands. Fragmented reserves have more edges, therefore the cowbird thrives.
  14. 14. Active Management 2 BrL. m_-i, _< In some cases, it is enough to create a national park , or nature reserve and leave it to its natural state. Where humans intervene in the conservation of 5‘"“’°l° '-°‘“" an area, we call it active management. ",3," , ,.e, ,,e, ,9""""“"‘“ Often, we need to take active steps in management Mam; of the area — usually as a way to reverse damage caused Indonesia by human impacts, invasive species or natural events. If active management did not occur, the habitat may continue to decline or recover too slowly. Some active management techniques: - culling alien or damaging species — fire-clearing areas to kill invasive species — re-planting or re-introducing endangered species - legal measures against human impacts In Samboja, Borneo, an area of 5,000 acres (20.2km2) was re-planted with seeds of 1,300 different native plant species and managed carefully. Six years later, there is a new rainforest growing and many animal species have returned. http: //www. guardian. co. uk/ environment/2008/may/04/ conservation. wiIdIife? gusrc= rss&feed= networkfront Example:
  15. 15. What is effective management of a reserve? Use these ideas to draft a management plan for a reserve in your region. identify values of the area map the area clearly - id . l3anr‘“g entify stakeho short-term goals _ _ Ion & e - nf monitor progress Orcement 0m€S alternative inc monitor environmental change Find rese rves at this data base: iIll])Z = ‘ V . I12lli()lI; ll])2Il‘lS- (II‘i(i i(le. iii lo“ 1 i Information from: U. S. Coral Recflask Force Working Group on licosystcm Science and Conservation. 2000. Coral reefprotectcd areas: A guide for management. U. S. Coral Reef’l‘ask Force. Department of the Interior. Washington, DC. 14 pp.
  16. 16. Conservation of endangered species in-situ original habitat Q‘? conserve natural habitats (5% ideal habitat for species under threat 4'50 part of long-term management vb plan for an area sustainability ?5’ +, g<‘Q GPS tagging of whales, turtles <(, b‘? ’ protecting habitats (reserves) 'a° %°’ <09 . 6+9 re-planting damaged ecosystems , b("' protecting habitats (reserves) ex-situ outside original habitat last—chance for survival species may be too rare to be left in the wild habitat may have been lost carefully controlled conditions captive breeding of pandas rehabilitation of apes seed banks store for re-planting (frozen for long—term storage) botanic gardens (cultivation, breeding, research)
  17. 17. Use the CITES (Convention on International »_' convention on International Trade ~n Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Trade in Endangered Species) database to identify one endangered animal species and A develop plans for in-situ and ex-situ J A i conservation. < in , ~ http: //www. ites. org/ eng/ resources/ species. html Add the genus and species names to the "’ visit the species database search engine and view the factsheets: (or search by region) CITES species database Search by name or Search by country or territory (. Phylum Indonesia V A (‘ Class (‘ Order CITES apaclu databau ‘F F3"'”¥ 0 Help with search (‘ Genus """""’ rt Species 0 Taxonomic sources —- j 1 i 1:: j 1 l r Common name ° E’. (Pl3'. I.3.l°IX. .m? l€ fo. v.0|TES span. r , , ' Ex. p!an. a.t9rx. _noteIOLCITES . A.ppe. . LL73“ flaw. ‘J Class MAMMALJA T 0.. . AFYIODAUVLA r. ».. i, acvvitmz Adder Adhi n-n-oufirn me Elzimille IBIS] [£1111
  18. 18. [he number I individuals of 3 acres h um 0,. the talara mg of C / the so Bl = Z(rRl x ar) total number ndivid lllllllll ted For more IB Biology resources: http: //sciencevideos. wordpress. com