Separation is defined as, “The introduction of a flexible porous textile placed between dissimilar materials so that the integrity and the functioning of both the materials can remain intact or be improved” (Koerner, 1995) . In transportation applications separation refers to the geotextile’s role in preventing the intermixing of two adjacent soils. For example, by separating fine subgrade soil from the aggregates of the base course, the geotextile reserves the drainage and the strength characteristics of the aggregate material. The effect of separation is illustrated.
It is defined as “the equilibrium geotextile-to-soil system that allows for adequate liquid flow with limited soil loss across the plane of the geotextile over a service lifetime compatible with the application under consideration (Koerner, 1995) . To perform this function the geotextile needs to satisfy two conflicting requirements: the filter’s pore size must be small enough to retain fine soil particles while the geotextile should permit relatively unimpeded flow of water into the drainage media. A common application illustrating the filtration function is the use of a geotextile in a pavement edge drain.
In spite of the realization that a promising avenue of economic activities has been opened up by Geosynthetics, the interdisciplinary nature of this industry and the current state of affairs of the Indian polymer and textile industries constitute serious hurdles of its growth. Lack of trained manpower is another concern. R&D issues would be primarily governed by the extent of cooperative activities of the interested parties, namely the designers, test organizations, suppliers, manufactures, and installers. There is a dire need to quickly break the barrier of isolation between the customer, consultant, contractor and the manufacturer. Unless necessary co-ordination is established, the true benefits of Geosynthetic materials shall not be realized. The most of the Geosynthetic material including woven and non-woven geotextiles are currently being imported / manufactured in India with technologies derived from various countries. As these are from different countries, it is obvious the test methodology varies from the country of origin. Therefore, there is a need for establishing a Geosynthetic institute in India. Formulation of Indian Standard relating to engineered Geotextiles / Geomembranes and allied products (natural and polymeric) for various civil engineering applications. There is a need to develop methods of tests, design construction and selection criteria. Even though BIS is publishing several documents the project related authorities are required to adhere more and more to the published national / international standards and guidelines. This will minimize the gap on required information for project clearance and completion. The end users and specifiers on Geosynthetic in the country must be aware of significant of technical parameters and their appropriate evaluation procedures. Development of a comprehensive manual is the requirement to achieve successfully implementation and long-term performance of the structures.
INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICALTEXTILES(GEO-TEXTILE,MEDICAL TEXTILE. ,ETC)ByGurumurthy.B.Rbrgmurthyfad@firstname.lastname@example.org
Technical Textiles Definition Technical are Textiles textile materials manufactured mainly for their technical performance and functional properties. Other terms used Industrial Textiles Functional Textiles Performance Textiles Engineering Textiles Invisible Textiles High-tech Textiles 2
Technical Textiles Some examples of day-to-day use of Technical Textiles Kitchen –Floor Mops, Tea Bags, Coffee Filters. Clothes – Collar / Cuff Interlinings, Shoulder Pads, Waddings in Jackets. Shoe – Lining, Insoles, Toe Stiffners, Synthetic Uppers. Car – Carpets, Roof-liners, Seat belts, Tyres, Airbags. Civil Engineering – Geotextiles in Roads, Railway Tracks, Soil Erosion, Slope Stabilisation, Flyovers, Pond/Canal lining, Landfills. Furnishing – Carpets, Vertical Blinds, Wall Coverings. Factory – Dust Collection Filter Bags, Liquid Filtration, Clean Air Filters of AC systems, Battery separators. Hospital – Masks, Gowns, Caps, Bandage. Hygiene – Baby Diaper, Sanitary Napkin, Wet Tissues, Incontinence Diaper. Bed – Blanket, Quilts, Mattresses, Bed sheets, Pillows. 3
TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES According to the end use, technical textiles can be divided into different categories.AGROTECH: These are the Agro-textiles, also known as Agrotex, that are used in agricultural applications releated to growing and harvesting of crops and animals.BUILDTECH: These are the Construction Textiles, also known as Buildtex, used in construction and architectural applications. Such fabrics as PVC coated high tenacity PES, teflon coated glass fiber fabrics are used in airports and hotels.CLOTHTECH: These are the clothing textiles, also known as clothtex.GEOTECH: These are the Geotextiles, also known as Geotex, which are woven, nonwoven and knit fabric used for many functions such as support, drainage and separation at or below ground level:
TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEXTILESHOMETECH: These are the Domestic Textiles, also known as Hometex, used in making of many home furnishing fabrics including carpet backings, curtains, wall coverings, etc.INDUTECH: These are the Industrial Textiles, also known as Indutex, used in different ways by many industries for activities such as separating, and purifying industrial products, cleaning gases.MEDTECH: These are the Medical Textiles, also known as Medtex. They include all the medical fabrics that are used in health and hygiene applications in both consumer and medical markets.MOBILTECH: These textiles, also known as Mobiltex, are used in transport industry, such as in construction of automobiles, railways ships etc.ECO TECH(OEKOTECH): These are the Eco-friendly Textiles, also known as oekotex or Ecotex. They are mostly used in environmental protection applications, floor sealing, erosion protection, air cleaning, prevention of water pollution, water cleaning, waste treatment/ recycling, depositing area construction.
TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEXTILESPACKTECH: These are the packaging Textiles, also known as Packtex. Textiles have been used for packaging since ages.PROTECH: These are the Protective Textiles, also known as Protex, that are used in the manufacturing of protective clothing of different types. Protection against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, for bullet proof jackets or for chemical protective clothing all depend on the use of protech. The protective textiles are made with the help of specialty fibers such as aramid fiber used in making of bullet proof jackets, glass fibers used in fire proof jackets etc.SPORTTECH: These are the sports Textiles, also known as sporttex, used mainly for making sports wear including sports shoes and other sports accessories.
Technical Textile Products Inspected By QA Wing of DGS&D MEDITEX :- Surgical Gloves , Bandage cloth , Wool Cotton Obsorvant & Coir Mattresses. BUILDTEX: - Cotton canvas tarpaulins , HDPE tarpaulins, Mats Door & Matting Coir. HOMETEX:- Mosquito Net. CLOTHTEX:- Shoes Canvas, Jungle Boots, P.C.Suiting ,shirting, Terry Towel, Blankets etc. PACKTEX:- HDP Bags, B-twill Bags. SPORTEX:- Tents, Sleeping Bags. INDUTEX:- Ropes. PROTEX:- High visibility Cloths, Mosquito Net fire retardant. MOBILTEX:- Helmets, Webbing, Tyre & Tubes.
World Scenario Technical Textiles Fibre Consumption of textiles Technical textiles 22% 17 43 Textle consumption 78% Total consumption – 60 bn. kgs. (2000) 8
World Scenario Technical Textiles Technical textile consumption by Region USA 23% Rest of World 32% India Western 3% Europe Japan 22% 7% China 13% Total consumption – 17 bn. kgs. (2000) 9
World Scenario Technical Textiles Fiber consumption in Technical Textiles O the rs* 1% Cotton 7% Glass 15% Jute , coir e tc 14% Viscose 3% Polyolifin 25% O the r Ce llulosic 7% Polye ste r 3% de 25% mi ly a Po* - Others include specialised fibres & yarns / high performance fibres /yarn. 10
World Scenario Technical Textiles Product wise consumption Unspun fibres 24% Yarn Type Fabric Products 67% 9% 11
World Scenario Technical Textiles Global end use of fabric Other Fabrics Knitted Fabrics 2% 5% Non woven Fabrics 20% Woven fabrics 73% Total fabric consumption – 11 bn. kgs. (2000) 12
World Scenario Technical Textiles End use consumption of nonwoven fabrics agrotech 2% medtech 33% geotech packtech indutech 3% 1% 12% Others mobiltech 14% 6% protech hometech 1% 12% bulidtech clothtech 15% sporttech 14% 1% Total consumption – 2.2 bn. kgs. (2000) 13
SASMIRA WHAT IS AGROTEXTILE • Special textiles that are manufactured for agricultural applications • These textile structures are used as controlling environment for plants/animals in applications like – Agriculture – Horticulture – Animal husbandry • Benefits Of Agrotextile Products Used in Protected Cultivation For Indian Agriculturists for improved Productivity & Quality Of Produce and lower Cost Of ProductionMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA FACTORS INFLUENCING AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES • Sunlight – direct and indirect • Water • Climatic Conditions including wind, hail, humidity • External factors like birds, insects, weeds • Post Harvest handling of produce – storage and packaging • In India, presently Agricultural Activities are carried out under Natural Conditions of Temperature and HumidityMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA CONSEQUENCES OF ABSENCE OF CONTROL FACTORS • Yield percentage is unsatisfactory • Quality of produce is marred • Damages to the produce • Regional limitation on cultivation • Seasonal limitation on cultivation THE ABOVE FACTORS CAN BE EFFECTIVELY CONTROLLED USING AGROTEXTILE PRODUCTSMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA AGRO TEXTILE PRODUCTS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN AGRICULTUR PRODUCT APPLICATION IN AGRICULTURE ANIMAL FISHING HUSBAN- CROP FLORICUL - HORTICUL- POST DARY PRODUCE TURE TURE HARVESTING KNITTED NETS SHADING BIRD PROTECTION WIND SHIELDS ANTI-HAIL HARVESTING FISHING MILCHING PACKAGING SUPPORT NETS MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA Agrotextile Product Details Bird Protection Net Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp knitted, 2 – 3 cm mesh size, 40 – 80 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also used Shading net Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp knitted, mesh size as per the required shading %, 40 – 80 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also used Windshield fabrics Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp knitted, mesh size as per the required wind blocking %, 40 – 90 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also usedMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA Agrotextile Product Details, contd.. Plant nets Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp knitted, Strips of nets with large opening, 30 -40 g/sq.m Harvesting nets Polypropylene monofilament / Polyethylene Tape yarns, Warp knitted, Flat nets of square or triangular construction, of mesh size 8 – 12 mm, 40 – 90 g/sq.m. Woven structures of lighter weight are also usedMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA Agrotextile Product Details, contd.. Mulch Mat Polypropylene, spunbonded, 60 – 80 g/sq.m. Woven biodegradable structures are also used Packing Material Polyethylene Tape yarn, Warp knitted, 50 – 60 g/sq.mMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA OEKOTECH & VARIOUS PRODUCTS To PROTECT ENVIRONMENTMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA OEKOTECH Oekotech is an important areas of technical textiles. Used for environmental protection and waste disposal. Its use is based on environmental damages for: • Building demolition • Power plant ash • Sewage treatment sludge • Incinerated waste ash • Municipal waste • Untreated hospital waste • Hazardous waste • Radioactive wasteMOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
SASMIRA OEKOTECH PRODUCTS & USES • Geogrids - reinforce slopes beneath the waste, walls, cover soils above geomembranes; • Geonets - in-plane drainage; • Geomembranes – a barrier to liquids, gases and/or vapors and landfill caps; • Geocomposites –for separation, filtration or drainage; • Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) - an infiltration/hydraulic barrier; used also for mine rehabilitation, tunnels, secondary containment • Geopipes - landfill applications to facilitate collection and rapid drainage of the leachate to a sump and removal system; • Geotextiles - filtration purpose or as cushion to protect the geomembrane from puncture.MOT,GOI Workshop, 18.9.08
IntroductionFrom ancient times the textile materials wereused for medical applications in India viz.surgical sponge, linen, silk sutures, strips, catgut,etc.Latest technological developments has enabledextensive use of technical textiles in healthcareindustry today.
On the Patient – bio-contact for minutes to hours Simple bandages Light support bandages Compression bandages Orthopedic bandages Surgical Gauze Cotton Slings Diapers Eye Pads Drapers Sanitary products Patient Hospital Uniform Adhesive tapes
Categorisation of Technical textiles in Medical FieldIn the Patient (Intra-corporal applications)On the PatientNear the PatientFor the Patient
Usage categoryIn the Patient – bio-contact for days to months Sutures (biodegradable and non biodegradable) soft tissue implants Artificial tendon (meshes) Artificial ligament Artificial cartilage, Orthopedic implants artificial joint Cardiovascular implants vascular grafts Heart valves
On the Patient – bio-contact for minutes to hours Simple bandages Light support bandages Compression bandages Orthopedic bandages Surgical Gauze Cotton Slings Diapers Eye Pads Drapers Sanitary products Patient Hospital Uniform Adhesive tapes
Near the Patient – No bio-contact, ordinary contact possible Bed sheet Pillow cover Other linen items viz. Blanket, Hand Towels etc. Heating Pad
For the Patient – No contact Face Mask Gowns Caps Aprons Mops Shoe Cover
Areas of usageHealthcare/ hygiene productsInclude bedding, clothing, surgical clothes,products for feminine hygiene like sanitary napkins,baby and adult diapers etc.Non-implantable materialsFor wound care that includes absorbent pad(wound contact layer, base material viscose, plasticfilm) and bandages (simple inelastic/elastic,orthopaedic, plasters, gauzes, lint, padding)
A range of natural fibers and biodegradablepolymers with non-biodegradable syntheticpolymers are being utilised for developing newproducts in medical textiles.Since the medical textile applications are directlyrelated to the life of human being, these arerequired to undergo stringent testing and hygieniccriteria.This led to innovative use of variety of fibers andlot of developments taking place in this field.
Fibers used in manufacturing of nonwovens for medical applications •Cotton •Polyester •Polypropylene •Viscose glass fiber •Wood fluff •Polyamide
Quality Standards as per FDA Standards prescribed by FDA for some of the items is tabulated below Item Threads Weight in Length and Other per g/m2 Width Dimensio nsBandage Wrap 150, 57 tolerance 99 % of size Foreign MatterCloth Weft 85 of 5% mentioned on Not more than the label 2%Absorbe Wrap 75, 30 tolerance 98 % of size Foreign Matternt Gauze Weft 55 of 5% mentioned on Not more than the label 1% Avg. sinking time not more than 10 secs.Roll Wrap 150, 35 tolerance 98 % of sizeBandage Weft 75 of 5% mentioned onfor POP the label
ConclusionTextiles are very important in all aspects of medicineand surgery.Advances in nonwovens have resulted in a new breedof medical textiles.Advanced composite materials containing combinationof fibres and fabrics have been developed for applicationswhere biocompatibility and strength are required.It is predicted that the nonwoven materials will continueto have greater impact in this sector because of largemember of characteristics and performance criteriarequired from these materials.
FLAT WOVEN KNITTED CIRCULARFLAT WOVEN WARP KNIT TRICOT VELVET DOUBLE NEEDLE BAR KNIT FABRICS USED COATED & COMPOSITES LAMINTED USING FIBRES LIKEFOAM FABRIC CARBON,GLASS,ARAMID,BOR ON,CERAMIC WITH RESIN FRPTRIM FABRIC CAN MADE
CHARACTERISTICS OF FIBRESResistance to sunlight and UV degradationAbrasion resistanceReduced flammabilitySoil resistance and easy cleanabilityResistant to microbes and other bacteriaHard, strong with high tear as well tensilestrengthSofter handle and touchVery high bursting strength(sails)
APPLICATIONSSailsInflatable craftHovercraft skirtsFurnishing fabricsOil boomsNets and RopesFunctional applications • Life rafts buoyancy tubes, canopies, minesweepers, sonar domes, corrosive-cargo carriers, Life jackets, personal flotation devices.
SAILSDefinitionA Textile material extended on rigging to catch wind and propel a boat.Requirements: light weight, dimensional stability Puncture resistance, high tear strength high seam strength Low porosity to wind, low water absorbency Good resistance to microbes UV degradation and smoothness
Cont… Natural fibres are replaced by polyester and nylon materials. Polyester film laminated on nylon and polyester fabrics. Recent trends are using carbon, ultra high modulus polyethylene yarns Spectra and Dyneema Aramid fibres are avoided due to poor UV-stability.
INFLATABLE CRAFT Nylon woven fabric (145gsm) For lighter craft woven from 470dtex. Heavier yarns, like 940 d/tex used for larger boats. Aramid fibres at 85gsm can also be used. Life boats and rescue craft For economical craft Freight carrying vessels polyurethanes & PVC materials Pleasure Craft are used. Several military applications
FURNISHING FABRICS Cruise ships can be regarded as FLOATING HOTELS. So quality of textiles must be standard High flame retardancy standards due to narrow corridors and low ceilings Dyes must be fast to fast to light, rubbing and salt water wool carpets are generally Zirpro treated titanium /zirconium salt) Durable Anti-static properties are needed conductive fibres are more durable than finishes
HOVERCRAFT SKIRTS Nylon fabric is coated with polychloroprene / natural rubber blend or natural rubber/polybutadiene. The nylon cords like 940dtex/2 and 940 dtex/3/3. This is highly twisted to impart fatigue resistance. Hovercraft can be Though aramid fibres are stronger deployed on terrain such but due to poor fatigue resistance as marshes where boats not used in this application. cannot go.
OIL BOOMS These articles are designed to contain accidental oil spillages in rivers and ocean. woven nylon or polyester as a base fabric(175gsm)coated with Hypalon, polychoroprene, PVC or PVC/ nitrile rubber, urethane . The material should be oil resistant.
ROPES AND NETS Where ropes need to stretch and to absorb high- impact energies. Nylon ropes, followed by polyester ropes are popular olden days. Second generation of synthetic fibers-aramid, high-modulus polyethylene, Vectran & PBOone- tenth its weight when compare to steel. The low weight and high strength of HPPE fibres to produce heavy-duty ropes. Its normally Float on water, are flexible and have a low elongation.
FUNCTIONAL APPLICATIONS life rafts, buoyancy tubes, canopies and life jackets, and personal flotation devices, minesweepers, sonar domes and in corrosive-cargo carriers. Life jackets made by woven polyamide coated with butyl or polychloroprene rubber to get gsm of 230 290. Quality tests include air porosity, coating adhesion, breaking and tear strength both in the warp & weft direction, flexing & waterproofness.
TEST METHODSProperty British standards Other related standardsAbrasion BS 3424-24:1990 (1996) ASTM D 3389-94(rotary)resistance Methods 27A and 27B BS 5690 (Martindale)Tear strength BS 3424:1982 (1996) ASTM D 1424(Elmendorf) Methods 7A, 7B, 7CWater BSEN 29865(Bundesmann) AATCC 35-1AATCC 42resistance BS 5066:1974 1993 (impact)994rain (WIRA)testsTensile strength BS 1932 for yarns and threads ASTM D 751 for coatedbreaking and BS 3424 Pt 5 for coated fabrics fabricselongation / ASTM D 1578-93 yarns by Skein methodDimensional BS 4736:1996 cold water SAE J883 Jan 94 coldstability water SAE J315AFogging BS AU 168:1978 SAE J1756:1994
TESTS FOR PRODUCTSPRODUCTS Standard CommentsBuoyancy aids, rescue BSEN 12628:1999 UL 1123devicesLife jackets and BSEN 393:1994 to 396:1994 BSENpersonal buoyancy aidsRecreational inflatables - UL 1180Upholstery BS 5790 (PVC) ASTM D 4852 (attached) ASTM D 3690 (PU/PVC)Tarpaulins BS 3408:1992 (1995) (ASTM D 751-98)Marine IMO Regulations e.g. IMO - Resolution A471 (XII) for fire resistance
MARKET STATUSRubber coated fabrics including those coated with naturalrubber neoprene,silicone, rubber or butyl rubber will post thefastest gains in 2012.Through 2010 polyester will remain the most commonly usedcoated fabric because of its low cost and versatility.
Reinforcement MSEGeo Drains Geo Separations Geotextile Applications in Roads
ASTM D4439 defined a geotextile as followsGeotextile : A permeable geosynthetic comprised solelyof textiles. Geotextiles are used with foundation, soil,rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering-related material as an integral part of a human-madeproduct structure, or system.Due to the very wide range of applications and thetremendous variety of available textiles having widelydifferent properties, the selection of a particular designmethod or design philosophy is a critical decision thatmust be made before the actual mechanics of thedesign process are initiated.
Geotextile Functions and MechanismsAn overview of geotextiles, alluded to manyapplications falling into categories: Separation Reinforcement Filtration Drainage ContainmentWhen properly identified, lead to the design-by-function method.
Geotextile choices as available1. Lightweight Wovens2. HeavyweightWovens3. High Flow Wovens4. High StrengthWovens5. Thermally BondedNon-wovens6. Needle punched Nonwovens
Geotextile Functions and MechanismsFiltration and Drainage Bituminious Courses Aggregate Bases Geotextile Layer Aggregate Drainage Layer Subgrade
Geotextile Functions and MechanismsReinforcementThis is the synergistic improvement in the total systemstrength created by the introduction of a geotextile intoa soil and developed primarily through the followingthree mechanisms:One, lateral restraint through interfacial frictionbetween geotextile and soil/aggregate.Two, forcing the potential bearing surface failure planeto develop at alternate higher shear strength surface.And three, membrane type of support of the wheelloads.
Geotextile Functions and Mechanisms Sealing Function New OverlayPavement Crack with Paving Fabric Reflective Crack without Paving Fabric Old Pavement Base Course
Major Applications of GeotextilesSeparation of Dissimilar Materials Between subgrade and stone base in paved roads and airfields Between landfills and stone base courses Between geomembranes and soil drainage layers Between foundation and embankment soils for surcharge loads Between foundation and embankment soils for roadway fills Between foundation and encapsulated soil layers Between foundation soils and rigid retaining walls Between slopes and downstream stability berms Beneath precast blocks and panels for aesthetic paving e.g. hardscaping
Major Applications of GeotextilesSeparation of Dissimilar materials Between drainage layers in poorly graded filter blankets Between old and new asphalt layersReinforcement of Weak Soils and Other Materials To reinforce embankments To aid in construction of steep slopes As basal reinforcement over soft soils To bridge over cracked or jointed rock To create more stable side slopes due to high frictional resistance
Major Applications of GeotextilesFiltration (Cross-Plane Flow) Beneath stone base for paved roads and airfields Around crushed stone surrounding under drains Around perforated under drain pipe As a flexible form for restoring scoured bridge pier bearing capacity Between backfill soil and weep holes in retaining walls Between backfill soil and gabions As a filter beneath precast blocks
Major Applications of GeotextilesDrainage (In-Plane Flow) As a drain behind a retaining wall As a drain at the base of retaining wall As a replacement for sand or wick drains
Band Drains / Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD)These are geocomposites formed of a hollow cored,geotextile wrapped drainage element (geonet) insertedvertically into soft ground to speed up the consolidationprocess. Prefabricated Vertical Drain Installation of PVD
Band Drains / Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD)Kandla Port – Ground improvementBand drains has been adopted to increase the bearingcapacity of the site. The following parameters have beenadopted: Scheme SBC Spacing of Preload Duration SBC after before Band Drain Height (Days) treatment treatment with Triangular (m) (T/m2) (T/m2) Grid (m) Scheme-1 2.00 1.25 4.00 80 10.21 Scheme-2 2.00 1.50 4.00 120 10.11
Band Drains / Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) at Kolkata
Emerging IssuesR&D Needs of the Indian Geotechnical IndustryThe Need to Encourage the Domestic SyntheticManufacturing IndustryNeed for Establishing a Geosynthetic Institute in IndiaStandardization in the Field of GeosyntheticsGeosynthetics Test Standards and Specifications
Current Applications burn and wound dressings, water filtration devices, paints, cosmetics, coatings, lubricants, textiles, memory/storage devices medical diagnostics, displays, sensors, drug delivery, composite materials, solid state lighting, bio-materials, nano arrays, more powerful computers, protective armor, chem- bio suits, and chem-bio sensors