Wind

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WIND

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Wind

  1. 1. It Blows You Away
  2. 2. "Coal, gas and oil will not be the three kings of the energy world for ever. It is no longer folly to look up to the sun and wind, down into the sea's waves"
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4.  Energy is a major input for overall socio- economic development of any society  The prices of the fossil fuels steeply increasing  So renewables are expected to play a key role  Wind energy is the fastest growing renewable  Wind turbines are up to the task of producing serious amounts of electricity
  5. 5. Principles
  6. 6. Uneven heating of earth’s surface and rotation
  7. 7. Force Strength km/h Effect 0 Calm 0-1 Smoke rises vertically 1 Light air 1-5 Smoke drifts slowly 2 Light breeze 6-11 Wind felt on face; leaves rustle 3 Gentle breeze 12-19 Twigs move; light flag unfurls 4 Moderate breeze 20-29 Dust and paper blown about; small branches move 5 Fresh breeze 30-39 Wavelets on inland water; small trees move 6 Strong breeze 40-50 Large branches sway; umbrellas turn inside out 7 Near gale 51-61 Whole trees sway; difficult to walk against wind 8 Gale 62-74 Twigs break off trees; walking very hard 9 Strong gale 75-87 Chimney pots, roof tiles and branches blown down 10 Storm 88-101 Widespread damage to buildings 11 Violent Storm 102-117 Widespread damage to buildings 12 Hurricane Over 119 Devastation Beaufort Scale
  8. 8. Velocity with Height
  9. 9. Power vs. Velocity
  10. 10. Lift and drag forces
  11. 11. Solidity and Tip speed ratio
  12. 12. Performance co-efficient and Betz criterion
  13. 13. Potential
  14. 14.  Huge potential exists  Available potential can contribute five times the world energy demand  0.4% contribution to total energy
  15. 15. Wind is currently the world’s fastest growing energy source
  16. 16. Growth of Wind EnergyMWInstalled Year
  17. 17. Wind Energy generating capacity by country, 1980-2003
  18. 18. Installed Capacity (MW) in 2005
  19. 19. Available potential in India
  20. 20. Wind Power Density of India
  21. 21. All India Fuel wise Installed Capacity, 2004 Hydro 26% Gas 10%Coal 58% Nuclear 2% Wind 3% Diesel 1%
  22. 22. Installed capacity (MW) in India 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05
  23. 23. State wise potential in India, 2005 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Gross Potential 8275 9675 6620 875 5500 3650 1700 5400 3050 450 Installed Capacity 120.6 253.53 410.75 2 28.85 456.15 2 284.76 2040.3 1.1 AP Gujara t Karnat aka Kerala MP Mahar ashtra Orissa Rajast han TN WB MW
  24. 24. Technology
  25. 25. Turbine Evolution Used for • Pumping water • Grinding grain Mainly used for • Generating Electricity
  26. 26. Types of turbines VAWT  Drag is the main force  Nacelle is placed at the bottom  Yaw mechanism is not required  Lower starting torque  Difficulty in mounting the turbine  Unwanted fluctuations in the power output
  27. 27. HAWT  Lift is the main force  Much lower cyclic stresses  95% of the existing turbines are HAWTs  Nacelle is placed at the top of the tower  Yaw mechanism is required
  28. 28. Two types of HAWT DOWNWIND TURBINE UPWIND TURBINE
  29. 29. Counter Rotating HAWT  Increase the rotation speed  Rear one is smaller and stalls at high wind speeds  Operates for wider range of wind speeds
  30. 30. Offshore turbines  More wind speeds  Less noise pollution  Less visual impact  Difficult to install and maintain  Energy losses due long distance transport
  31. 31. A Typical HAWT
  32. 32. Turbine design and construction  Blades  Material used  Typical length  Tower height  Heights twice the blade length are found economical
  33. 33.  Number of blades  Three blade HAWT are most efficient  Two blade turbines don’t require a hub  As the number increases; noise, wear and cost increase and efficiency decreases  Multiple blade turbines are generally used for water pumping purposes
  34. 34.  Rotational control  Maintenance  Noise reduction  Centripetal force reduction  Mechanisms  Stalling  Furling
  35. 35.  Yaw Mechanism  To turn the turbine against the wind  Yaw error and fatigue loads  Uses electric motors and gear boxes  Wind turbine safety  Sensors – controlling vibrations  Over speed protection  Aero dynamic braking  Mechanical braking
  36. 36. Improvements  Concentrators
  37. 37. Future Wind Turbines Wind Amplified Rotor Platform
  38. 38. Disc type wind turbine o Much more efficient than HAWT o Requires less height o Low noise o Works in any wind direction
  39. 39. Economics
  40. 40. Determining Factors  Wind Speed  Turbine design and construction  Rated capacity of the turbine  Exact Location  Improvements in turbine design  Capital
  41. 41. Wind Speed Matters Assuming the same size project, the better the wind resource, the lower the cost.
  42. 42. Size Matters Assuming the same wind speed of 8.08 m/s, a large wind farm is more economical
  43. 43. Overall cost distribution
  44. 44. Break down of capital cost
  45. 45. Energy Cost Trend 1979: 40 cents/kWh  Increased Turbine Size  R&D Advances  Manufacturing Improvements 2004: 3 – 4.5 cents/kWh 2000: 4 - 6 cents/kWh
  46. 46. Typical cost statistics  Size: 51 MW  Wind Speed: 13-18 miles/hour  Capital cost: $ 65 million ($1300/MW)  Annual production: 150 million kW-hr  Electricity costs: 3.6-4.5 cents  Payback period: 20 years
  47. 47. Economic Advantages
  48. 48.  Greater fuel diversity  No delay in construction  Low maintenance costs  Reliable and durable equipment  Additional income to land owners  More jobs per unit energy produced  No hidden costs
  49. 49. Future
  50. 50. Wind Capital Cost
  51. 51. Cost of Wind Energy
  52. 52. Germany now and 2020  At present 10% of the country’s energy is supplied by wind energy  By 2020 it is expected to go up to 26%
  53. 53. Australia now and 2040
  54. 54. So…..  Price of wind power is coming down  There is enormous capacity  Energy storage, however, is still a problem
  55. 55. Typical Concerns
  56. 56.  Visual impact  Off shore turbines  Arrangement  Avian concerns  Suitable choice of site  Using tubular towers instead of lattice tower  Using radars
  57. 57.  Noise  Varies as 5th power of relative wind speed  Streamlining of tower and nacelle  Acoustic insulation of nacelle  Specially designed gear box  Use of upwind turbines  Reducing angle of attack  Low tip speed ratios
  58. 58.  Changes in wind patterns  Reducing turbulence  Intermittent  Coupling with hydro or solar energy  TV, microwave, radar interference  Switching from conducting material to non-conducting and composite material
  59. 59. Conclusion
  60. 60.  Wind energy is pollution free and nature friendly  Wind energy has very good potential and it is the fastest growing energy source  The future looks bright for wind energy because technology is becoming more advanced and windmills are becoming more efficient
  61. 61. THANK YOU
  62. 62. Furling

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