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Ultraviolet & visible
spectroscopy
UV-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY RESPONDS TO TRANSITION
INVOLVING PIE AND LONE PAIR ORBITALS & IS USED FOR
IDENTIFYING CONJUGATED SYSTEMS WHICH TENDS TO HAVE
STRONGER ABSORPTION.
INSTRUMENTATION
SOURCE OF LIGHT FOR UV-VIS




 THERE IS NO SINGLE LIGHT SOURCE FOR THE ENTIRE
  UV & VISIBLE REGION.
 TUNGSTEN LAMP-VISIBLE REGION
 DEUTERIUM LAMP-ULTRAVOILET REGION.
SAMPLE HOLDER &
          MONOCHROMATOR


 SAMPLE HOLDER IS GENERALLY MADE UP OF QUARTZ
  CRYSTAL BECAUSE GLASS DO ABSORBS AT UV REGION.
 HOWEVER GLASS HOLDER FOR SCANNING IN UV
  REGION.
 MONCHROMATOR IS GENERALLY GRAFTER OR
  ROTATING PRISM.
 PHOTODIODE ARRAYS ARE NOW AVAILABLE WHICH
  PRODUCES ACCURATE WAVELENGTH.
SOLVENT SELECTION

Solvents must be transparent in the region to
be observed; the wavelength where a solvent is
no longer transparent is referred to as the
cutoff


Since spectra are only obtained up to 200 nm,
solvents typically only need to lack conjugated
  systems or carbonyls
SOLVENT SELECTION
 Common solvents and cutoffs:
   acetonitrile 190
   chloroform 240
   cyclohexane 195
   1,4-dioxane 215
   95% ethanol205
   n-hexane     201
   methanol     205
   isooctane    195
   water        190
APPLICATION IN OILS INDUSTRY


 UV IS TO HPLC WHAT MS IS TO GC.
 UV VIS ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY CAN BE USED TO
  DETECT TRANS ISOMER SINCE TRANS ABSORBS .
 USED TO DETERMINE PURITY OF THE SAMPLE.
 ESTIMATION OF CONJUGATED ISOMERS IN ALKALI
  ISOMERISED LINSEED OIL.
 ESTIMATION OF ALPHA & BETA ELEOSTEARIC ACID IN
  TUNG OIL
APPLICATION IN OILS INDUSTRY



 DETERMINATION OF ORYZANOL CONTENT IN RICE
  BRAN OIL.
 ESTIMATION OF GOSSYPOL IN COTTONSEED OIL.
 ESTIMATION OF CHLOROPHYLL IN OIL
 ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT

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Ultraviolet & visible spectroscopy

  • 1. Ultraviolet & visible spectroscopy UV-VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY RESPONDS TO TRANSITION INVOLVING PIE AND LONE PAIR ORBITALS & IS USED FOR IDENTIFYING CONJUGATED SYSTEMS WHICH TENDS TO HAVE STRONGER ABSORPTION.
  • 3. SOURCE OF LIGHT FOR UV-VIS  THERE IS NO SINGLE LIGHT SOURCE FOR THE ENTIRE UV & VISIBLE REGION.  TUNGSTEN LAMP-VISIBLE REGION  DEUTERIUM LAMP-ULTRAVOILET REGION.
  • 4. SAMPLE HOLDER & MONOCHROMATOR  SAMPLE HOLDER IS GENERALLY MADE UP OF QUARTZ CRYSTAL BECAUSE GLASS DO ABSORBS AT UV REGION.  HOWEVER GLASS HOLDER FOR SCANNING IN UV REGION.  MONCHROMATOR IS GENERALLY GRAFTER OR ROTATING PRISM.  PHOTODIODE ARRAYS ARE NOW AVAILABLE WHICH PRODUCES ACCURATE WAVELENGTH.
  • 5. SOLVENT SELECTION Solvents must be transparent in the region to be observed; the wavelength where a solvent is no longer transparent is referred to as the cutoff Since spectra are only obtained up to 200 nm, solvents typically only need to lack conjugated systems or carbonyls
  • 6. SOLVENT SELECTION  Common solvents and cutoffs:  acetonitrile 190  chloroform 240  cyclohexane 195  1,4-dioxane 215  95% ethanol205  n-hexane 201  methanol 205  isooctane 195  water 190
  • 7. APPLICATION IN OILS INDUSTRY  UV IS TO HPLC WHAT MS IS TO GC.  UV VIS ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY CAN BE USED TO DETECT TRANS ISOMER SINCE TRANS ABSORBS .  USED TO DETERMINE PURITY OF THE SAMPLE.  ESTIMATION OF CONJUGATED ISOMERS IN ALKALI ISOMERISED LINSEED OIL.  ESTIMATION OF ALPHA & BETA ELEOSTEARIC ACID IN TUNG OIL
  • 8. APPLICATION IN OILS INDUSTRY  DETERMINATION OF ORYZANOL CONTENT IN RICE BRAN OIL.  ESTIMATION OF GOSSYPOL IN COTTONSEED OIL.  ESTIMATION OF CHLOROPHYLL IN OIL  ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT