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PREPARATION OF
METHYL ESTERS
 OF FATTY ACIDS
             BY
GURUPRASAD VENKATAKRISHNA RAO
REVISING THE BASICS

• ESTERS OF SMALL ALCOHOLS & BIG
  ACIDS ( FAME ).
• USES OF THESE ESTERS
3.GREEN TAGGED PRODUCTS
4.RAW MATERIALS FOR ALCOHOLS
5.LUBRICANTS
6.USED IN IDENTIFICATION OF
  MICROBES (SOUNDS INTERESTING !!)
FAME




ACID
 OIL


                     TRIGLYCERIDES

  SINGLE
   CELL
             FATTY
   OILS
             ACIDS
FAME BY TRIGLYCERIDES

• OLDEST & COMMERCIAL METHODS
• REQUIREMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
3.REFINED OIL ( POSSIBLY 100 % TG )
4.CHEAPER ONE $$$
5.NARROWER RANGE OF FA CHAINS.
6.CONTINOUS SUPPLY
CHEMISTRY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
                                              Alcohol    Water      Water




    TG                                Ester
                                                                                  Biodiesel
Alcohol
Catalyst                                                                Dryer
                                              Alcohol
                                                                Wash




                                                        Water
                                                                Water           Acid
           Batch Reactor
                           Crude
                           Glycerol


                                                                          Neutralized
                                                                          Glycerol
Air
                                                                                             SVO

   Biodiesel Unit                                Motor
                                                          SV2
                                                                                             P1
                                                                                                              Design by
   1tpd Capacity                                                                                                DCE
                                                                                  Methanol




                                                              Reactor 600 Ltrs.
                  Vegetable Oil
                                                                                     +
                    Storage                                                        H2SO4
                     Tank
                    1500 Kg




                                                                                         Settling Tank
                                                                                                                          Vaccum




                                                                                         1000 Ltrs.
                              SV2                                                                                          Drier
                                                         P3
                       P2                                                                                 Motor
                                                   SV3           Methanol
                                                                    +
                                                                  KOH
                                                                                                                          Storage
                                                                                                                            Tank
Biodiesel    P8                                                                                                           500 Ltrs.
                            P7    Vaccum      P6                         P5
 Storage
  Tank                              Drier
1000 Ltrs.
                                                                                                                  Transesterification
                                                                                                         P4       Reactor,
                                                                                                                  500Lts./Charge
             Glycerol Storage               Washing Column Separating Column
                Tank 500 Ltrs.              500 Ltrs./ Charge 500 Ltrs./ Charge
ABOUT THE PROCESS……

• FEED STOCK IS KEPT FREE FROM
  MOISTURE.
• SUFFICIENT ALCOHOL IS ADDED TO
  MAKE UP THREE FULL EQUIVALENTS
  OF THE TRIGLYCERIDE, AND AN
  EXCESS OF USUALLY SIX PARTS
  ALCOHOL TO ONE PART
  TRIGLYCERIDE IS ADDED TO DRIVE
  THE REACTION TO COMPLETION
POINTS TO BE
        REMEMBERED
• MONITOR THE LEVEL OF FFA &
  WATER IN INCOMING OIL.
• CATALYST IS PREMIXED WITH
  ALCOHOL.
• REACTION MIX IS KEPT AT ABOVE BP
  OF ALCOHOL.
• FLASH EVAPOURATION IS DONE TO
  REMOVE ANY ALCOHOL.
CHALLENGE AHEAD…….

         HIGH FFA FEED STOCK
• PUT EXCESS CATALYST TO FORM SOAP
  AND SOAPS ARE STRIPPED USING
  CENTRIFUGES (“CAUSTIC STRIPPING”).
• ACID-CATALYSIS FOLLOWED BY BASE-
  CATALYSIS PROCESS.
• ACID CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION.
•
FAME BY FATTY ACIDS

• INVOLVES ACID CATALYSED
  ESTERIFICATION.
• KINETICALLY SLOW .
• ADDITIONAL STAGE IN HIGH FFA
  FEEDSTOCK.
• MOC BECOMES EXPENSIVE.
• FAME COST INCREASES BUT WITH
  HIGH QUALITY.
FAME BY ACID OILS
• ACIDIFIED SOAPSTOCK CAN BE USED
  AS FEED STOCK.
• THERE ARE TWO STRATEGIES
  INVOLVED HERE.
3.FREE OIL CAN BE CAN BE
  SUBJECTED TO COMPLETE
  HYDROLYSIS AND THEN ACID
  ESTERIFICATION.
4.ACID & THEN BASE CATALYSED RXN
  STRATEGY ALSO USED
FAME BY SCO

• FUTURE LIES HERE.
• MICROBES ARE ALLOWED TO FEAST
  ON ORGANIC MATTER OF NATURE TO
  PRODUCE OIL FORCEFULLY BY RDT.
• OIL IS EXTRACTED BY SUITABLE
  SOLVENT & THEN BASE CATALYSED
  INTERESTERIFICATION IS DONE.
MICROWAVE ASSISTED
          PROCESS
• Microwave irradiation helps the synthesis of methyl
  esters (BioDiesel)and the high conversion of triglycerides
  in few minutes.
• The stirring process doesn’t appear to be so notable
  under MW irradiation as it is with conventional heating.
• The energy needed for the trans-esterification under
  microwave irradiation is very low (ca. 0,0156 kW/kg of
  biodiesel)
• A setting up of new catalysts such Ba(OH)2 H2O, which
  can prevent soap formation and be easily separated and
  recycled at the end of the trans esterification reaction
  has been investigated.
ENZYMATIC ROUTE

• USE ENZYMES TO PRODUCE ESTERS
  FROM TRIGLYCERIDES.
• RELATIVELY   LONGER   PERIOD   OF
  REACTION.
• EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE BECAUSE OF
  THE COST OF ENZYMES.
• NO   COMMERCIAL     PLANT   USING
  ENZYMES TO PRODUCE BIODIESEL.
• CATALYST SEPARATION ISSUE CAN BE
  SOLVED EASILY.
! SUPERCRITICAL !

• INVOLVES USE OF SUPERCRITICAL
  METHANOL.
• SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL & OIL
  ARE IN SINGLE PHASE.
• NO CATALYST REQUIRED
• HIGH PRESSURE IS THE
  DISADVANTAGE.
REFERENCES

• FATTY ACIDS & OLEOCHEMICALS BY
  FRANK D GUNSTONE.
• OILS & FAT TECHNOLOGY BY BRECK
  AND BHATIA
• WWW.BAYERS.COM
• WWW.GOOGLE.COM
• SPECIAL THANKS TO Dr SUDHA
  RAMAN
Methyl ester

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Methyl ester

  • 1. PREPARATION OF METHYL ESTERS OF FATTY ACIDS BY GURUPRASAD VENKATAKRISHNA RAO
  • 2. REVISING THE BASICS • ESTERS OF SMALL ALCOHOLS & BIG ACIDS ( FAME ). • USES OF THESE ESTERS 3.GREEN TAGGED PRODUCTS 4.RAW MATERIALS FOR ALCOHOLS 5.LUBRICANTS 6.USED IN IDENTIFICATION OF MICROBES (SOUNDS INTERESTING !!)
  • 3. FAME ACID OIL TRIGLYCERIDES SINGLE CELL FATTY OILS ACIDS
  • 4. FAME BY TRIGLYCERIDES • OLDEST & COMMERCIAL METHODS • REQUIREMENT OF RAW MATERIALS 3.REFINED OIL ( POSSIBLY 100 % TG ) 4.CHEAPER ONE $$$ 5.NARROWER RANGE OF FA CHAINS. 6.CONTINOUS SUPPLY
  • 6. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Alcohol Water Water TG Ester Biodiesel Alcohol Catalyst Dryer Alcohol Wash Water Water Acid Batch Reactor Crude Glycerol Neutralized Glycerol
  • 7. Air SVO Biodiesel Unit Motor SV2 P1 Design by 1tpd Capacity DCE Methanol Reactor 600 Ltrs. Vegetable Oil + Storage H2SO4 Tank 1500 Kg Settling Tank Vaccum 1000 Ltrs. SV2 Drier P3 P2 Motor SV3 Methanol + KOH Storage Tank Biodiesel P8 500 Ltrs. P7 Vaccum P6 P5 Storage Tank Drier 1000 Ltrs. Transesterification P4 Reactor, 500Lts./Charge Glycerol Storage Washing Column Separating Column Tank 500 Ltrs. 500 Ltrs./ Charge 500 Ltrs./ Charge
  • 8. ABOUT THE PROCESS…… • FEED STOCK IS KEPT FREE FROM MOISTURE. • SUFFICIENT ALCOHOL IS ADDED TO MAKE UP THREE FULL EQUIVALENTS OF THE TRIGLYCERIDE, AND AN EXCESS OF USUALLY SIX PARTS ALCOHOL TO ONE PART TRIGLYCERIDE IS ADDED TO DRIVE THE REACTION TO COMPLETION
  • 9. POINTS TO BE REMEMBERED • MONITOR THE LEVEL OF FFA & WATER IN INCOMING OIL. • CATALYST IS PREMIXED WITH ALCOHOL. • REACTION MIX IS KEPT AT ABOVE BP OF ALCOHOL. • FLASH EVAPOURATION IS DONE TO REMOVE ANY ALCOHOL.
  • 10. CHALLENGE AHEAD……. HIGH FFA FEED STOCK • PUT EXCESS CATALYST TO FORM SOAP AND SOAPS ARE STRIPPED USING CENTRIFUGES (“CAUSTIC STRIPPING”). • ACID-CATALYSIS FOLLOWED BY BASE- CATALYSIS PROCESS. • ACID CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION. •
  • 11. FAME BY FATTY ACIDS • INVOLVES ACID CATALYSED ESTERIFICATION. • KINETICALLY SLOW . • ADDITIONAL STAGE IN HIGH FFA FEEDSTOCK. • MOC BECOMES EXPENSIVE. • FAME COST INCREASES BUT WITH HIGH QUALITY.
  • 12. FAME BY ACID OILS • ACIDIFIED SOAPSTOCK CAN BE USED AS FEED STOCK. • THERE ARE TWO STRATEGIES INVOLVED HERE. 3.FREE OIL CAN BE CAN BE SUBJECTED TO COMPLETE HYDROLYSIS AND THEN ACID ESTERIFICATION. 4.ACID & THEN BASE CATALYSED RXN STRATEGY ALSO USED
  • 13. FAME BY SCO • FUTURE LIES HERE. • MICROBES ARE ALLOWED TO FEAST ON ORGANIC MATTER OF NATURE TO PRODUCE OIL FORCEFULLY BY RDT. • OIL IS EXTRACTED BY SUITABLE SOLVENT & THEN BASE CATALYSED INTERESTERIFICATION IS DONE.
  • 14.
  • 15. MICROWAVE ASSISTED PROCESS • Microwave irradiation helps the synthesis of methyl esters (BioDiesel)and the high conversion of triglycerides in few minutes. • The stirring process doesn’t appear to be so notable under MW irradiation as it is with conventional heating. • The energy needed for the trans-esterification under microwave irradiation is very low (ca. 0,0156 kW/kg of biodiesel) • A setting up of new catalysts such Ba(OH)2 H2O, which can prevent soap formation and be easily separated and recycled at the end of the trans esterification reaction has been investigated.
  • 16. ENZYMATIC ROUTE • USE ENZYMES TO PRODUCE ESTERS FROM TRIGLYCERIDES. • RELATIVELY LONGER PERIOD OF REACTION. • EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE BECAUSE OF THE COST OF ENZYMES. • NO COMMERCIAL PLANT USING ENZYMES TO PRODUCE BIODIESEL. • CATALYST SEPARATION ISSUE CAN BE SOLVED EASILY.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. ! SUPERCRITICAL ! • INVOLVES USE OF SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL. • SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL & OIL ARE IN SINGLE PHASE. • NO CATALYST REQUIRED • HIGH PRESSURE IS THE DISADVANTAGE.
  • 20. REFERENCES • FATTY ACIDS & OLEOCHEMICALS BY FRANK D GUNSTONE. • OILS & FAT TECHNOLOGY BY BRECK AND BHATIA • WWW.BAYERS.COM • WWW.GOOGLE.COM • SPECIAL THANKS TO Dr SUDHA RAMAN