Fragrances are EverywhereThere is almost no place a person can go where the air is free of fragrance chemicals today – inside or outFragrances invade: – Homes – Outdoor air with scented dryer sheets – Public events (plays, movies, etc.) – Public transportation (airplanes, buses, light rail)
Fragranced Products• Products containing Fragrances: – Perfumes and colognes – Air fresheners and “plug-ins” – Scented laundry products – Scented soaps and lotions – Antimicrobial soaps and lotions – Hair sprays and gels – Scented candles – Pot pourris – Incense
Fragrance Facts !!!• At least 1 in 5 people experience adverse health effects from synthetic fragrance exposure• Almost 1/3 of the chemical additives used in perfume are known to be toxic / carcinogenic• Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in fragrances are emitted as gases and include a variety of chemicals, some of which have short- and long-term adverse health effects• The American Dermatitis Society named FRAGRANCE as the Allergen of the Year for 2007
Fragnance chemicals are• Volatile organic compounds ( VOC ).• Solvent systems in which they are embedded.• Fixatives which reduces rate of evapouration and improves stability of VOC.
Volatile organic compounds• VOC are generally essential oils.• Forms basis of any fragnance products. ESSENTIAL OILS EFFECTS ROSE OILS PREGNANCY, GYNECOMASTIA LEMON OILS RESPIRATORY , CARCINOGENS(III) LAVENDER OIL NAUSEA, VOMMITING, DIZZINESS,NASAL PROBLEM JASMINE OIL ALLERGENS, PREGNANCY
VOCs – Volatile Organic Compounds• All fragranced products give off VOCs – fine particulates that disperse into the air.• Most VOCs are respiratory irritants that harm the immune system and can affect the nervous system.• VOCs are implicated in environment-based childhood illnesses such as autism, ADD, and Asperger’s Syndrome ( MY NAME IS KHAN )• Both low and high levels of exposure to VOCs can cause and exacerbate these conditions.
SOLVENTS• Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, primary objective being reduce the strength of given essential oils.• Secondary objective being adulteration (Dadar station perfume )• By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water.• Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil
SOLVENTSSOLVENTS HEALTH HAZARDSETHANOL LIVER CIRHOSSIS, CANCER , PREGNANCYBENZYL DERIVATIVES INHALATION , LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, CARCINOGEN,ANESTHETIC EFFECTJOJOBA OIL & PARAFFIN OIL VOMMITING, IRRITANT
FIXATIVES• A Fixative is a natural or synthetic substance used to reduce the evaporation rate and improve stability when added to more volatile components. This allows the final product to last longer while keeping its original fragrance.• Fixatives are indispensable commodities to the perfume industry.• They are ambergris, castor oil, musk, vetiver .• Synthetics are now available ( paraffins , dialky phthalates )
Role of Phthalates• Almost all fragranced products contain “phthalates” – hormone disrupting chemicals that are implicated in premature puberty.• Phthalates can cause genital defects and other reproductive defects in babies and even in young children who were born normal.• Phthalates are implicated in rising infertility rates in people of all ages.
Fragrances and AsthmaThe American Lung Association states that a majority of asthmatics cite fragrances as a trigger for asthma attacksEven low level exposure to fragranced products can cause asthma attacksOccupational asthma occurs with exposure to fragrances and other chemicals on the job.
Curious Case of Coumarins !!!• They are themselves not toxic but becomes potent hazards under the presence of light.• Studies is being carried out to know the effects of other cosmetic ingredients on Fragnance material.• Interesting observation coming up that individual body response plays an significant role in determing health hazards.
REFERENCESWWW.WIKIPEDIA .COMWWW.GOOGLE.COMSAFETY & TOXICOLOGY OFFRAGNANCE BY STEVE MEAKINSWEBSITES OF IFRA & RIFM