night vision


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  • UCOE, PBI. UNI.,PTA ROLL. NO. : 11172032
  • UCOE, PBI. UNI.,PTA ROLL. NO. : 11172032
  • UCOE, PBI. UNI.,PTA ROLL. NO. : 11172032
  • night vision

    1. 1. STUDY OF NIGHT VISIONTECHNOLOGYBy: Maninder Singh NagraECE-11172032
    2. 2. ABSTRACT  Night Vision Technology (NVT), going by its definition, literally allows one to see in the dark. Originally developed for military use, it has provided the United States with a strategic military advantage, the value of which can be measured in lives.  Federal and state agencies now, in routine, utilize this technology for site security, surveillance as well as for search and rescue. Night vision equipment has evolved from bulky optical instruments to lightweight goggles through the advancement of image intensification technology.Page  2 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Night Vision Technology has shaped history.  Pre 1940’s: Flares and spot lights were used for operations at night.  Night Vision Technology has been used to see in the night.Page  3 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    4. 4. BASICS■ CONCEPT OF LIGHT Figure1: Electromagnetic Spectrum[3]Page  4 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    5. 5. Basics■ CONCEPT OF ATOMFigure 2: Showing Atomic Structure[2] Figure 3: Showing stimulated emission[3]Page  5 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    6. 6. Basics GREEN HOUSE EFFECT Figure 4: Depicting the Infrared Source[7]Page  6 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    7. 7. Conclusion from BasicsAll objects emit Infrared rays during Night also.To watch at night ,there is a need to intensify the available Infrared rays.Page  7 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    8. 8. WORKING OF NVT There are two ways in which NVT works:  Thermal Imaging  Image EnhancementPage  8 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    9. 9. THERMAL IMAGING ■ SPECIFICATIONS • Scan 30 times per sec. • Sense temperature ranging from -20 to 2,000 degree Celsius. • It shows a very minute difference of as small as 0.1 degree Celsius from more than 1,000ft away. Figure 5: Process of Thermal Imaging[1]Page  9 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    10. 10. TYPES OF THERMAL IMAGING DEVICES CRYOGENICALLY COOLED UNCOOLED  More susceptible to damage  Less susceptible to damage from rugged use. from rugged use.  These systems have the  These systems don’t have a elements sealed inside a need to cool the infrared container that cools them below detectors. 0 degree Celsius.  A Microbolometer is not used.  A Microbolometer is used.  Very high resolution and  Low resolution and sensitivity. sensitivity.  More complex and costly.  Less complex and costly.  Less Reliable.  More Reliable.Page  10 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    11. 11. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT■ COMPONENTS3. Front Lens4. Photocathode5. Micro Channel Plate6. High Voltage Power Supply7. Phosphor Screen8. Eyepiece9. Image Intensifier Figure 6: Internal view of IIT[5]Page  11 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    12. 12. WORKING OF IMAGE INTENSIFIER TUBE (IIT)Page  12 Figure 7: Showing the: 11172032 stages of IIT[5] ROLL. NO. working
    13. 13. DEVELOPMENTS IN NVT GENERATION 1 Developed in 1960s Post WWII NVT focused on the ability to see without creating additional light. During this time period,the first “Generation” of NVT began using intensified natural lighting. Page  13 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    14. 14. GENERATION 1 CONT. Military scientists created a two-stage cascade image tube. This tube intensified the natural lighting and created a superior image for the viewer.Page  14 ROLL. NO. : 11172032 Figure 8: Image Intensifier Tube (Generation 1)[1]
    15. 15. GENERATION 1 CONT. The power of Generation 1 NVD was put to the test in the Vietnam War. Star Tron Scopes intensification tubes were as heavy as the rifles they were mounted on. The NVD emitted a whiney noise. They would shut down if they were exposed to a sudden burst of bright light.Page  15 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    16. 16. GENERATION 2 Developed in 1970s Thermal imaging allowed NV even through low natural lighted conditions. It also allowed NV through smoky, dusty, and foggy conditions. These thermal imagers were expensive, so in 1973 scientists created a common module that made it less expensive, and more ideal for military use.Page  16 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    17. 17. GENERATION 2 CONT. The generation 2 NVT were first put to the test by US forces in the early 1990’s during Operation Desert Storm in Kuwait. The dark nights and harsh dusty conditions were perfect for implementing the new technology.Page  17 Figure 9: Image Intensifier Tube (Generation 2)[1] ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    18. 18. CURRENT GENERATIONS The current generations of NV Source are generations 3 and 4. Generation 3 is much like generation 2 except for the fact that it has a substantially longer life, as well as more defined images. Generation 4 has less noise than generation 3, however it has shorter life. Improvements o MCP & Photocathode o Starlight Operation o Amplification: 40,000 o Operating Life: 10,000 Hour Page  18 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    19. 19. NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY COMPARISONPage  19 ROLL. NO. : 11172032 Table 1: Depicting the characteristics of NVT Generations[7]
    20. 20. APPLICATIONS Military Law enforcement Hunting Wildlife observation Surveillance Security Navigation Hidden-object detection EntertainmentPage  20 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    21. 21. DISADVANTAGES OF NVT [6] During utter darkness, IITs are uncapable to detect any object. Thermal goggles cannot detect "cold" objects. 200 chemical substances are needed in order to make night vision goggles work effectively. Thermal imaging cannot see through plates of glass. Quality cameras often have a high price range .Page  21 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    22. 22. FUTURE ASPECTS The Army is pushing NVT into the digital realm. Future NV goggles are being designed not just to see better at night but also to allow soldiers to share images of what they see with other soldiers who may be miles away. Technologists are working to meet the challenges of the Army, which includes their requirements for power, size and weight. The fusion of both technologies (Thermal Imaging and Image Enhancement ) would result in night-vision goggles that merge the strengths of image intensification. The combination of the two systems into a single optical device resulted in what the Army calls an “enhanced night vision goggle,” or ENVG.Page  22 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    23. 23. References[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] http://www.wikipedia.orgPage  23 ROLL. NO. : 11172032
    24. 24. QUESTIONS ?Page  24 ROLL. NO. : 11172032