What is Negotiation?
Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences.
It is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached
while avoiding argument
• To avoid resentments due to conflict and disagreement
• Negotiation is to try to reach agreements without causing future
barriers to communications
Stages of Negotiation
Clarification of Goals
Negotiation towards WIN-WIN situation
Implementation of Course of Action
• Venue to discuss the problem and who will attend
• Setting a limited timescale can prevent the continuation of
• Ensure that you have knowledge of all the pertinent facts of the
situation are known in order to clarify your own position
• This would include knowing the ‘rules’ of your organization
• During this stage, individuals or members of each side put forward
the case as they see it, that is their understanding of the situation.
• Key skills are questioning, listening and clarifying.
• Take notes during the discussion stage to record all points put
forward in case there is need for further clarification.
• It is extremely important to listen,
• Each side should have an equal opportunity to present their case
3. Clarifying Goals
• From the discussion, the goals, interests and viewpoints of both
sides of the disagreement need to be clarified.
• List these in order of priority.
• Through clarification it is often possible to identify or establish
4. Negotiate for a WIN-WIN Outcome
• This stage focuses on what is termed a WIN-WIN outcome where
both sides feel they have gained something positive
• A WIN-WIN outcome is usually the best outcome
• Suggestions of alternative strategies and compromises need to be
considered at this point.
• Compromises are often positive alternatives which can often
achieve greater benefit for all concerned rather than holding to
the original positions.
• Agreement can be achieved once understanding of both sides’
viewpoints and interests have been considered.
• It is essential to keep an open mind in order to achieve a solution.
• Any agreement needs to be made perfectly clear so that both sides
know what has been decided.
6. Implementing a Course of Action
• From the agreement, a course of action has to be implemented, to
carry through the decision.
• Failure to Agree: process of negotiation breaks down and
agreement cannot be reached, then re-scheduling a further
meeting is called for.
Three Essential Elements
• Interpersonal Skills
• All negotiation is strongly influenced by underlying attitudes to
the process itself
• Negotiation is not an arena for the realization of individual
• Certain features of negotiation may influence a person’s behavior,
for example some people may become defensive.
Skills You Need:
• Reflecting, Clarifying and Summarising
• Problem Solving
• Decision Making
• Stress Management
• Dealing with Aggression
• Good preparation is essential.
• The way issues are negotiated must be understood as negotiating
will require different methods in different situations
Win - Lose Style
• The win-lose is the most common style of negotiation wherein a
person pursues his or her own interests at the expense of other
• Under this style negotiation is viewed as a game to be won. Losing
may be taken as failure, weakness, and a loss of status.
• When engaged in this style, the parties may use different tactics to
win like: persuasion, argument, power, or even threats.
• Avoiding the conflict in certain situations – not negotiating at all –
is also negotiation.
• People may physically withdraw by simply leaving the scene of
conflict or they can refuse to get involved by using silence, or
changing the topic of conversation.
• Psychologically, avoiders can also deny the existence of conflict.
• During formal negotiation, avoidance style is exercised by turning
a deaf ear and / or a blind eye to the conflicting points or issues.
• Accommodating style of negotiation entails giving in to the wishes
of the opponent party.
• Like avoidance, accommodating the other party almost in a onesided way, is also a negotiation.
• Unlike avoiders, the accommodators enter into negotiation and give
in a way that strengthens the relationships.
• During negotiation, giving in totally / partially may be part of
negotiating game plan.
• Compromising, the most common style of conflict resolution,
entails splitting the differences and reaching an acceptable middle
ground solution through give-and-take whereby each party should
gain something and may have to lose something.
• Parties under this style of negotiation, generally use techniques
like trading, bargaining, smoothing over differences, & voting etc.
• While most negotiations start with win-lose style, they may end up
with a compromise.
Collaborating (Win-Win) Style
• Collaborating is based on a willingness to accept other party’s
needs while asserting your own needs as well.
• It assumes that there is some reasonable chance that a solution
can be found to satisfy both parties in conflict without losing much.
• Solutions which satisfy all parties , are generally not possible, but a
collaborator believes that it is worth trying to find that.
• Focus on maintaining good relationships
• Focus on the interest not position
• Generate a variety of options that offer gains to both sides
before making decisions
• Avoid misunderstanding
– clarify the goal, problem, viewpoints, meanings