Successfully reported this slideshow.
Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Introduction to Integrated Circuits

755 views

Published on

CoolJunk is India's fastest growing DIY (do-it-yourself) kits company focused on project-based learning in science, engineering and technology. Having 20,000 users in India, US, Singapore, Middle East and New Zealand, the CoolJunk kits are known for quality, innovation and high production value. CoolJunk has been featured in national and international journals including Wallstreet, Yourstory, Hindu Business Line, NextBigWhat and was tagged as the coolest Indian start-up in IAN Bootcamp-2011.

Published in: Education
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

### Introduction to Integrated Circuits

1. 1. Now CoolJunk brings you… WORLD OF ICs WHY IC
2. 2. Reduces Size FIRST Easy to Implement SECOND Jack Kilbys’ First IC at Texas Instruments
3. 3. From Sand to a Chip PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY
4. 4. Dual Inline Packaging
5. 5. Surface Mount
6. 6. Dual Inline Packaging Pins spaced at 1/10th of an inch Rows spaced at 3/10th of an inch Pins between 4-16 Plastic Body
7. 7. Reading First Line SN74HCO4N Make Family Generation IC no. Package Type
8. 8. TRY TO READ IT
9. 9. 1. Always read first line 2. Ignore second line 3. Identify notch- Pin1 4. Read Anticlockwise RULES4
10. 10. 555 Timer IC. Please open your kit and take it out
11. 11. - 8 Pins, DIP - Each pin has a different function - Voltage range is 4.5-15V - To power it, pin 8 is given Vcc and pin 1 is grounded - Pin 2 is Input - Pin 3 is Output - 200mA of current from output pin 555 Specifications
12. 12. Draw Pin Diagram in your notebook
13. 13. Let us create Time Time, t = 0.0011 * R78 * C6 • Identify R78 and C6 in your circuit sheet, experiment-1 • Calculate t
14. 14. Experiment 1
15. 15. Connecting 555 on BreadBoard
16. 16. Experiment 1 • Rotate 4K7 potentiometer to the maximum value. • Take Voltage reading at Pin 2 (Red probe at pin 2 and black probe to –ve terminal of battery). It shall be close to 9V. • Press S1 (continuously) and rotate 5K. Check the voltage reading at pin 2 until it reaches between 3- 4 volts. • Rotate the potentiometer further and see if your voltage reading at pin 2 is less than 3V
17. 17. Experiment 1 • If you press S1, LED will glow for a fixed time, t. • After LED glows, press S1. Nothing will happen. Measure the total time for which LED glows. • While LED is glowing, press S2 (pin 4). Immediately, LED will be off. This is a Reset Button
18. 18. • If you press S1, LED will glow for a fixed time, t. • After LED glows, press S1. Nothing will happen. Measure the total time for which LED glows. • While LED is glowing, press S2 (pin 4). Immediately, LED will be off. This is a Reset Button • Replace R78 with a 1M ohm preset. At different positions of the preset, you will notice different timing durations (measure time with watch).
19. 19. Pin 3 receives high when Pin 2 is low Voltage at Pin 2 should be less than 1/3rd of Vcc Pin 3 produces positive pulse (voltage) for time T
20. 20. INSIDE MONOSTABLE MODE
21. 21. Applications of Monostable “One shot” Trigger
22. 22. Let us create Tone F, frequency = 1440/(R78+2R67)*C6 • Identify R78, R67 and C6 in your circuit sheet, experiment-2 • Calculate f • Then, implement the following circuit diagram
23. 23. Experiment 2
24. 24. EQUAL ON/OFF CYCLES
25. 25. Circuit Modifications Activity 2.1: Replace R67 with a 100K preset. Rotate it and see what happens?---------DIFFERENT TONES Activity 2.2: Connect two LEDs at pin 3. One LED with its positive leg at pin 3 and the other leg grounded through a 330 ohm resistor. Second LED with its negative leg at pin 3 and the other leg connected to Vcc through a 330 ohm resistor Activity 2.3: Replace C6 in the circuit with 10 mfd or 100 mfd or 1000 mfd and see the difference.
26. 26. Circuit Modifications (Home Assignment) Activity 2.4: You can also control the volume of the tone by using Pin 5. Replace capacitor (0.1 mfd) with the following circuit:
27. 27. Let us create Bistable You create an indefinite pulse • Then, implement the following circuit diagram • When you press S2, LED glows. If you press S2 again, nothing will happen. • Press S4, LED is off. Press S4 again, nothing happens. Press S1 and LED glows again.
28. 28. Experiment 3
29. 29. Combining two ICs • Output of Pin 3 is used to power pin 8 of another IC (3 1). Vmin = 60-70% of Vcc • Output of Pin 3 is used to control pin 5 of another IC (3 5). When 3 is high, pitch increases. When 3 is low, pitch decreases. • Output of Pin 3 is used to trigger another IC (3 2). When pin 3 is low, it can trigger another 555 since its output is close to 0.5V.
30. 30. 1 Monostable combined with 1 Astable
31. 31. One Astable combined with another Astable
33. 33. 20 MN Gates in Pentium IV FAST COMPUTATION THINKING MACHINES
34. 34. Digital IC Types • Made from Complimentary Metal Oxide transistors, • 74 Series • Consumer less power • More sensitive to static charge • Part Number contains alphabet “C” • Voltage Range: 3-18 V • Made from Bipolar Junction transistors (Transistor- Transistor Logic) • 4000 Series • Consume more power • More Sensitive to static charge • Part Number contains alphabet S, LS, ALS CMOS TTL
35. 35. 1. Give regulated 5V DC Supply using a Voltage Regulator-7805 2. Low input (0) means (< 1V) 3. High input(1) means (> 3.5 V) RULE1
36. 36. Don’t mix TTL and CMOS Chips in the same circuit No input pin of a digital IC should be left floating or unattended # If it is a CMOS IC, ground the unused input pins # If it is a TTL IC, give Vcc to the unused input pins RULE2
37. 37. Latch-Output is made fixed
38. 38. Let us now build Electronic Door Lock
39. 39. LOGIC OF ELECTRONIC DOOR LOCK
40. 40. Let us now build Quiz Game
41. 41. Circuit Requirements 1. Press button first- Winner 2. Output signal latched 3. Output signal is one of the feedback 4. All buttons blocked 5. Host resets the system
42. 42. - All player buttons should be blocked once the output signal latches from the winning team - So, at least one player’s output is enough to block all the buttons. Thus, all outputs can be combined into a OR Gate.
43. 43. Two 555 timers in bistable as Latch SPDT Switch for play and reset In play mode, user switches receive –ve In reset mode, reset pins of 2 timers receive –ve Push button switches as trigger (One side –ve and other side OR Gate )
44. 44. Output of push buttons into 2 OR Gates Winning user presses push button first--- Negative at Pin 2 of 555---LED glows Output of both timers into a 3rd OR Gate Output of 3rd gate as one of the inputs to 2 OR gates
45. 45. When host starts the system, either of the two LED glows. And none of the teams actually pressed the button. “SWITCH BOUNCING”
46. 46. UNWANTED OSCILLATIONS MULITPLE PULSES TO 555 TIMER 555 TRIGGERS NOT JUST ONCE BUT A NUMBER OF TIMES How to remove these oscillations?
47. 47. De-bounce Switch using NOR
48. 48. Draw this pin diagram
49. 49. 74LS92 Counter IC, TTL family 14 pin IC, Two inputs (pin 1 and pin 14) Four Output pins-12,11,9,8 To power it, give Vcc to pin 5 and ground to pin 10 To use it as digital counter, give input to pin 14 and connect pin 1 to pin 12
50. 50. Binary Counter First Run a 555 in astable mode At Four Output pins-12,11,9,8::: Connect a (LED + R) and ground Resistors See pin diagram and do other connections of 74LS92 Connect output (pin 3) of 555 to input A (pin 14) of 74LS92 Record the observations in the following table See your Circuit Sheets
51. 51. LED D LED C LED B LED A Binary Code Number Glows Glows Doesn’t Glow Doesn’t Glow 1100 12 Say, if Binary Number = 011 Then, Decimal Number = 2^0 * 1 + 2^1*1 + 2^2 * 0 = 1*1 + 2*1 + 0 = 1+2 = 3
52. 52. CD 4017 Decade Counter (counts 0-9) Output Pins- 1-7, 9-11 Pin8- Ground, Pin 16-Vcc 15, Reset Pin- Low for normal operation Pin 14- Input Pin (Clock Input) Pin 13- Low to enable display, high to freeze display Pin12- Divide by 12 Output- Provides high for counts 0-4 and low for 5-9
53. 53. DRAW THIS
54. 54. 7- Segment Display