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  • Divide participants into two groups and provide each group with flipchart paper. Ask one group to list differences between women and men on the flipchart paper, and the other to list similarities. (10 mins) Ask each group to provide feedback. (10 mins)
  • Bring the whole group together to discuss the following questions (on slide): What are the effects of highlighting differences rather than similarities between men and women? To what extent do you think assumptions about biologically determined sex differences between women and men influence popular culture, sayings or beliefs in your cultural setting? (10 mins) Look for opportunities in the discussion to point out that: The variation within each sex is often as significant as the variation between the sexes Men and women are more like each other than they are like rocks, water, trees, or most animals Often, characteristics deemed traditionally ‘male’ are given more value within society than characteristics deemed ‘female’, e.g. strength vs. sensitivity. There is a socially constructed hierarchy within sexual difference.
  • Ask each participant to write down her or his own working definitions of the terms sex, sexuality, and gender. (5 mins) Combine participants into pairs to compare their definitions and develop definitions on which they both agree. (5 mins) Make three columns, either on a whiteboard or flipchart paper, and head the columns Sex, Sexuality and Gender respectively. Ask one pair to volunteer to report back on their definition of the term sex to the whole group. Note key aspects of the definition on your whiteboard or flipchart paper under the relevant heading. Ask for a second pair to volunteer to report back on their definition of the term sexuality and, again, note key terms. Ask for a third pair to volunteer to report back on their definition of the term gender and, again, note key terms. Ask the remaining groups to call out any additional key terms they may have. (10 mins) Facilitate a brief group discussion on the definitions, paying particular attention to any inconsistencies or overlap between the definitions. (10 mins) If possible, leave the definitions where they can be seen throughout the rest of the module.

    2. 2. Group 1 – List differences between women and men and consider: • On what are these perceived differences based? (e.g. biological, social, cultural or religious beliefs)Group 2 – List similarities between women and men and consider: • On what are the perceived similarities based? (e.g. biological, social, cultural or religious beliefs) 2
    3. 3. All participants to consider together: –To what extent do assumptions about biologically determined sex differences between women and men influence popular culture, sayings or beliefs in your cultural setting? 3
    4. 4. Definitions• Write down your own definitions of the terms sex and gender• Compare your definitions with those of the person next to you• Each pair to report back to whole group• 4
    5. 5. SEX GENDER• categorization of • cultural or social interpretation of sex people into male • behavioral and female expectations groups based on associated with biological being a socially characteristics appropriate man or woman
    6. 6. SEX GENDER• XX (female) or XY • masculine (male) • feminine chromosomes • “man”• eggs or sperm • “woman”• facial hair• breasts• “female, male”
    7. 7. Sex• Sex refers to the physical and biological attributes of men and women• Sex includes the chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical components of males and females.
    8. 8. Gender and Gender Identity• Gender refers to the social, psychological and cultural attributes of masculinity and femininity, many of which are based on biological distinctions – Gender includes people’s self image and expectations for behavior among other things• Gender describes societal attitudes and behaviors expected of and associated with the two sexes.• Gender identity refers to the degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine based on society’s definitions of appropriate gender roles.
    9. 9. Gender Characteristics?• Generally, sex is considered to be an ascribed status while gender is an achieved status• Examples of gender characteristics? What physical, emotional, or other characteristics are considered “masculine” or “Feminine”?
    10. 10. • Sheena and Jaye are sister and brother. Sheena is invited by a neighbor to an all girl birthday party. Jaye wishes to go, but the neighbor said that he can’t go because he’s a boy. What would you tell Jaye if you were his parent?• Now, reflect on what the different ways say about your assumptions of gender.
    11. 11. Gender as a Social Construction• Gender is a process, stratification system and structure;• Process = day to day interactions reinforce gender as opposites. For examples, conversations, rituals of daily life, sayings, etc• Stratification = Men as a group have more status and power than women as a group. Women are treated as “other,” and compared to men.• Structure = Gender divides work in the home and economic production. It legitimates those in authority and organizes sexuality and emotional life.
    12. 12. Gender as a Social Construction• What is necessary for society’s perpetuation?• Rules for allocating goods• Assigned responsibility for children and others who can’t care for themselves• Common values and the transmission of them.• Legitimate leadership.• Expression of the above through arts, music, stories, etc.• What social categories influence the way the above exist?
    13. 13. Gender as a Social Construction• What is work?• Any activity that creates goods and services for one’s own use or for exchange or pay. There is paid work (market); coerced work (slavery) and domestic work.
    14. 14. Gender as a Social Construction• Industrialization reduced work to pay. Why?• Most domestic work is devalued or invisible.• For example: babysitter versus lawnwork. Also, domestic work not included in the economy
    15. 15. Gender as a Social Construction• How does our conception of gender affect work? • Products created for different tasks • Expectations for different jobs. • Value for the tasks done: for example, is it truly more valuable to work outside than inside? • Gender displays both men and women create to control the workplace.
    16. 16. The Social Construction of Gender• Gender Roles – Expectations regarding proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females – Gender roles evident in work and in how we react to others
    17. 17. Gender Roles in the society are gendered in nature.Gender roles are cultural and personal.They determine how males and femalesshould think, speak, dress, and interact within the context of society.A gender role is a set of social and behavioral norms that are generally considered appropriate for either a man or a woman in a social or interpersonal relationship.
    18. 18. Gender roles adopted during childhood normally continue into adulthood. Traditionally, fathers teach boys how to fix andbuild things; mothers teach girls how to cook, sew, and keep house. Children then receive parental approval when they conform to gender expectations and adopt culturally accepted and conventional roles. All of this is reinforced by additional socializing agents, such as the media.
    19. 19. Gender Bias Society produces bias that is structured on the basis of gender identities. Patriarchy strengthens the gender bias and recognises the society as amale dominated space. Thus, women face bias from the dominant patriarchal society. Gender bias is the construction of socialization process and it is the extension of patriarchalideology. Gender bias is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people basedon their gender rather than their individual merits, butcan also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the gender of the individuals.
    20. 20. EDUCATIONAL PRACTICEEqual access Preventing and responding to gender-based violence Curriculum Human rights education Peace education Life skills and health educationTeaching and learning materials Instruction and learning processes