Training Needs Assessment: A Systematic Approach
“Remember, training is notwhat is ultimately important…performance is.” Marc Rosenberg
Did you know...“Not more than 6-10 % ofexpenditures in training actuallyresult in transfer to the job.” Broad and Newstrom
Key SkillAsking questions… ???Asking the RIGHTquestions!
In the “Real World” You cannot afford to not do a front- end analysis Something is better than nothing Do the best you can Need to have a theoretical base Key skill: Focus your questions
Needs Assessment DefinitionA needs assessment is the processof identifying performancerequirements and the "gap" betweenwhat performance is required andwhat presently exists.
Macro vs. Micro Macro Microaligned with initiated by strategic goals performancethree levels problems or change organizational assessment done to clarify problem, occupational determine if training individual is the solution, analyze performance, and characteristics of trainees
Instructional Design Process ANALYZE DESIGN DEVELOP IMPLEMENT EVALUATE
Why ISD?On the job GAP Classroom orperformance other type of training or intervention
Analyze What is the problem? Problem Analysis Is it a training problem? Performance Analysis What skills and knowledge should Task/Competency be included in the Analysis training program? Who needs to be Learner Analysis trained?
What is Problem andPerformance Analysis?Clearly defining the problem or opportunityA formal procedure used to analyze defined needs to determine their causes and identify appropriate solutions.
Robert Mager1. Define the problem?2. Determine the importance Is it worth solving?3. Determine the cause(s)4. Identify training vs. non-training solutions5. Select the best (most cost-effective) solutions
Step 1: Define the problem Describe Discrepancy DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimals) - ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actuals) = POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED
Step 2: Is it important?Why is it important?What if you did nothing?How big is it? (Quantify if possible)Who cares?“Is the cost of the discrepancy high enough that it seems worth pursuing a solution?”
Step 3: Determine Cause(s) Is it a problem of skill or a problem of will? I don’t I don’t wanna! wanna! I don’t know how.
Yes, it is a skill deficiency Arrange Formal no Used to Training do it? yes Arrange Practice no Used often? Arrange Feedback yes
Other questions Change the Job Simpler way? Arrange on- the-job training Potential Transfer or ? terminate
If a skill deficiency..Provide trainingProvide practiceProvide feedbackSimplify the taskDevelop a job aidOJTTransferTerminate
P. 37Yes, it is a problem of will... Remove Performance punishing? Punishment Non-performance Arrange rewarded? Positive Consequences Arrange Does performance consequences matter?
And one last question... Obstacles? Remove Obstacles
Step 4: To train or not to P. 39train? Calculate costFirst determine cause(s) Select best solution(s)Only then look at possible solutions ImplementSeek integrated solution systems that get to the root of the problem
To solve a performanceissue Training may not be the answer Training may not be the only answer
P. 39 Cause SolutionIf skill or knowledge……….trainingIf lack feedback……………..feedback, standardsIf not motivated…………….rewards, consequencesIf unclear expectations…..std, measure, discussIf job environment…………change environmentIf potential……………………change personnel
P. 40If training is the answer….Formal trainingSelf studyTechnology basedJob related/workplace approaches
P. 42 Outcomes of Problem and Performance AnalysisMore complete picture of problemIs it training? Is it training plus…Make solid recommendationsIf is training or job aid….on to task or competency analysis!
Task/Competency Analysis “What do learners need to learn?” Task Analysis Competency AnalysisFor more skill Soft skills training oriented jobs such as mgmt,When need consistent supervision set of training Professional jobs requirements Career pathing Leadership development
Steps in Task AnalysisBreak job into major functionsBreak functions into major tasksBreak tasks into stepsIdentify training outcomes
Competency AnalysisWhat are competencies? Enduring characteristics of a person that result in superior on-the-job performance Areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks
What is a competencymodel?Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency.
What do you want to P. 61 know?General characteristicsSpecific knowledge and skillLearning stylesSpecial needs
Information is Used inThree Important Ways To help determine where to begin the content of the training program To determine how to present the content To get buy-in
Methods for collectingdataData gathering is cornerstone of any needs assessment projectCan be time consuming
Data Collection MethodsInterviewsSurveys/QuestionnairesFocus GroupsObservationExisting Data
Final ExamWhy do we bother with needs analysis?Where does TNA fit in the ISD process?T or F: Training is the solution to most performance problems.What are at least 4 methods of collecting data?What is the key skill one must use in conducting an effective needs analysis?
“If you think trainingis expensive,tryignorance.”