Ob 3


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Ob 3

  1. 1. Ability <ul><li>A general term referring to the potential for the acquisition of a skill. The term covers intelligence and the specific aptitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The term refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Intelligence <ul><li>A general term referring to the overall capacity for learning and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aptitude <ul><li>An aptitude is an innate potential influenced by favourable environmental conditions to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Aptitudes may be physical or mental. </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude refers to an individual’s underlying potential for acquiring skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitudes are special abilities in a particular field of activity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ability <ul><li>An individual’s overall abilities are essentially made up of two factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Ability: The capacity to do mental abilities – thinking, reasoning and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Ability: The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength and similar characteristics. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intelligence: General or Specific Abilities <ul><li>General Ability: </li></ul><ul><li>In Sir Francis Galton’s view intelligence is a single general factor that provides the basis for the more specific abilities that each of us possesses. </li></ul><ul><li>(If we are generally intelligent, we will be more likely to develop strong mechanical, musical, artistic and other kind of abilities). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intelligence <ul><li>Charles Spearman also used the term ‘g’ factor to refer to the general factor of intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of ‘g’ factor was also supported by David Wechsler. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intelligence <ul><li>Specific Abilities: Intelligence is not a single general factor but a collection of many separate specific abilities. Most of us are much better in some cognitive skills than others, rather than being generally good at everything. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intelligence <ul><li>Thurston mentioned seven Primary Mental Abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Guilford also supported the concept of multiple intelligence. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Intelligence <ul><li>Gardner also has argued that there are multiple types of intelligence. He suggested that there are seven independent types of intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical – Mathematical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial (Artistic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic (Athletic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal (Social Skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal (Personal Adjustment) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Intelligence <ul><li>A general factor underlies all intelligence, but people can be strong in one specific area of intelligence and weak in another. </li></ul>
  11. 11. IQ <ul><li>The concept of IQ was given by William Stern. </li></ul><ul><li>The first person to develop a measure of Intelligence was Alfred Binet. </li></ul><ul><li>IQ is an individual's intelligence level which can be measured as a quotient of their estimated &quot;mental age&quot; and their chronological age. </li></ul><ul><li>IQ = M.A. / C.A. x 100 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ability <ul><li>Physical Ability: The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength and similar characteristics. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ability – Job Fit <ul><li>Employee performance is enhanced when there is a high ability – job fit. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific intellectual or physical abilities required for adequate job performance depend on the ability requirements of the job. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Biographical Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biography: A biography (from the Greek words bios meaning &quot;life&quot;, and graphos meaning &quot;write&quot;) is an account of a person's life. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Personal Characteristics – such as age, gender, academic qualifications, length of tenure – that are objective and easily obtained from personal records. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover: The older a person gets, the less likely he is to quit his job. </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism: Age – absence relationship is partially a function of whether the absence is avoidable or unavoidable. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity: Reviews of the research find that age and job performance are unrelated. If there is some decay due to age, it is offset by gains due to experience. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction: Most studies indicate a positive relationship between age and satisfaction. Other studies however have found a U shaped relationship. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Gender: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity: There are few, if any, important differences between men and women that will affect their job performance. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Gender: </li></ul><ul><li>Absence: The research on absence, however consistently indicates that women have higher rates of absenteeism than men do. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Gender: </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover: Research indicates that women quit rates are similar to those of men. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Tenure: </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity: Extensive reviews of the seniority – job productivity relationship demonstrate a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Biographical Characteristics <ul><li>Tenure: </li></ul><ul><li>Absence: Studies consistently demonstrate seniority to be negatively related to absenteeism. </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover: Studies demonstrate seniority to be negatively related to turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction: Tenure and satisfaction are positively related. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Skills, Abilities & Aptitude <ul><li>Skills, abilities, and aptitudes are similarly related but distinct, descriptions of what a person can do. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills are a backward looking description, and describe what a person has learned to do in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities are a present description, and describe what a person can do now, including things which was not explicitly learned skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitudes are a forward looking description, and describe skills a person has the ability to learn in the future. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Learning <ul><li>Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Classical Conditioning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Conditioning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from the consequences of behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by observing others </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour is a function of its consequences. A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Albert Bnadura </li></ul><ul><li>People can learn through observation and direct experiences. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>This theory incorporates aspects of behavioral and cognitive learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral learning assumes that people's environment (surroundings) cause people to behave in certain ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive learning presumes that psychological factors are important for influencing how one behaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning suggests a combination of environmental (social) and psychological factors influence behavior. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process: </li></ul>
  32. 32. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Attention: In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Retention: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Reproduction: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Motivation: Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Shaping: A Managerial Tool <ul><li>Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Reinforcement & Punishment <ul><li>An environmental event that is the consequence of an instrumental response and that makes that response more likely to occur again is known as reinforcement. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Reinforcement & Punishment <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement: Following a response with something pleasant is called positive reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement strengthens the response because it results in the occurrence of something positive. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Reinforcement & Punishment <ul><li>Negative Reinforcement: Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant is called negative reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement strengthens the response because it results in something negative being removed or not occurring. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Reinforcement & Punishment <ul><li>Punishment: A punisher is a stimuli or event which, when its onset is contingent on a response, decreases the likelihood that the response will occur again. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment weakens the response because it results in the occurrence of something negative. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Reinforcement & Punishment <ul><li>Extinction: Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behaviour is called extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction weakens the response because it results in the elimination of something positive. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Interval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable Interval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable Ratio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous: A desirable behaviour is reinforced, each time it is demonstrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent: A desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Interval Schedule: Interval schedule depends on how much how much time has passed since the previous reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio Schedule: The individual is reinforced after giving a certain number of specific types of behaviour. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Interval: Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Interval: Rewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Ratio: Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Ratio: The reward varies relative to the behaviour of the individual. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Behaviour Modification <ul><li>OB Mod: The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. </li></ul>
  48. 48. OB Mod <ul><li>5 step problem solving Model: </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying critical behaviours. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing baseline data. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying behavioural consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing and implementing an intervention strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating performance improvement. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Some specific organisational Applications <ul><li>Well Pay versus Sick Pay </li></ul><ul><li>Employee discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Training Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Self Management </li></ul>