Natural resources conservation


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This includes a presentation on the topic of Natural Resources, Their importance and what is being done and needs to be done for their conservation

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Natural resources conservation

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Natural Resources are Essential component for the proper performance of various Ecosystem Functions that maintain the Natural Homeostatic balance The Natural Resource Base comprises of: Bio resource Population Vegetative Biomass: Forests and Agriculture Biodiversity: Vegetation & Wild-life Abiotic Resource: Mineral resources & Soils Physical & Climatic Resource: Energy: Renewable as well as Non renewable Climate and it’s Phenomena Continued exponential rise in the Human population and it’s compound impact offsets delicate balance of Nature 2
  3. 3. Our Natural Resource Wealth Land: Arable Land: 48% and Forests: 22% Water: Total renewable water resources: 1,907.8 km3/year Soil: Many fertile soils including alluvial soil which comprises 80% of the total fertile soil available Minerals: India occupies a prominent place in the Mineral map of the world. Chief minerals include Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, diamonds, limestone, thorium,petroleum, natural gas Energy: Both renewable & non-renewable energy resources. Besides Coal based TPP, We have Natural gas, Solar, Geo-thermal, Hydro, Nuclear etc. Vegetation: Diverse vegetation including Tropical Rainforests, Deciduous & Coniferous forests. Nearly 6% of the world’s flowering plants . Wildlife : `Many species of animals, birds & reptiles which includes 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian of the wildlife population of world Asian Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard,Sloth Bear, Indian Rhinoceros, antelopes
  4. 4. 1.Total Land mass - 2973,000 Km2 2.Total Cropland - 1694,610 Km2 [57% Area] Year 2000 3.Total Pastures - 118,920 Km2 [04% Area] 4.Total Forest Cover - 641,000 Km2 [21% Area] per capita0.07 % 5.Dense Forest - 367,260 Km2 [57.3% Forest Area] Canopy<40% 6. Open Forest - 261,310 Km2 [40.7%Forest Area] Canopy10-40% 7. Mangrove - 4827 Km2 [0.75% Area] We had in 1947 about 34 % area under forest Major conflicts are logging for sake of timber and Pulp, and also the requirements of Fuel wood, Fodder and Agricultural land to support the deprived Local Tribal Communities which are often marginalised
  5. 5. Environmental Impact of Mining is worst Mining on forest lands has maximum impact in terms of ecological destruction & Loss of biodiversity. It also Affects people directly or indirectly dependent on forest for livelihood
  6. 6. Water Resources get augmented through Hydrological Cycle The Surface waters are located in Lakes, Rivers & Reservoirs The Ground Water is located in water bearing Formations called aquifers
  7. 7. Drinking Bathing Municipal Water Supply Navigation Irrigation Aquaculture Industrial Use Waste disposal
  8. 8. With nearly 70 percent, Agriculture is the largest abstractor of Water resources With increasing Population, Cash crop farming and use of energy intensive practices, Water demands are increasing Immediate steps are necessary to reduce the water use in Farming Practices
  9. 9. Abstracting nearly 07 percent Water Industry sector demands are quite high With Recent estimates at nearly 13 %, Water demands are only increasing A liter of Waste water renders another 07 liter unfit for any other use Hence, the actual Environmental demands are much more, and given the in-efficient use in Indian Industry situation is really alarming Industry pays a pittance for the water it uses, and wastes
  10. 10. Industrial Sector Average water consumption in Average water consumption in Indian industry in m3 / unit Product Globally best in m3 / unit Product Thermal Power On an average 80 Plant [ mWh] Less than 10 Cotton Textiles 200-250 [ MT of Cloth ] Less than 100 Pulp & Paper [ MT ] Wood based mills: 50 - 75 Waste paper based mills: 10-25 Wood based mills: 150-200 Waste paper based mills: 75-100 Integrated Iron 10-80 m3 / MT of Finished Product & steel plant (average) 5 -10 m3 / MT of Finished Product ( Best ) is around 25 m3 / MT of Finished Product (average) Wastewater less than 0.1 m3 Distilleries 75-200 m3/ tonne alcohol produced Data not available Fertilizer industry [MT of Product ] Nitrogenous fertilizer plant : 5.0 - 20 An effluent discharge of less than Straight phosphatic plant : 1.4 - 2.0 1.5 m3/ MT product as P2O5 Complex fertilizer : 0.2 - 5.4
  11. 11. Country Argentina Brazil India Korea, Rep. Norway Sweden Thailand U.K. Ind.productivity Ind.water Use (Bill.M3) (Mill. US $) 2.6 77171.0 9.9 231442.0 15.0 113041.0 2.6 249268.0 1.4 47599.0 0.8 74703.0 1.3 64800.0 0.7 330097.0 Ind. Water productivity (US $ / M3) 30.0 23.4 7.5 95.6 35.0 92.2 48.9 443.7 No Water consumption Standards for Guzzler Industries Need Pollution load-based standards: polluter pays principle
  12. 12. Unfulfilled Urban Agenda ? WATER SERVICES Access to safe drinking sources 82% Access to tapped water 65% Access to tapped water within premises 42% Average per capita supply 54 to 160 lpcd Unreliable, inadequate, unknown quality of water SANITATION Access to toilets 63% Access to toilets within premises 33% Connections to sewerage 28% Only 70 out of 289 class I cities have sewage treatment facilities
  13. 13. 1972 : 1,50,000 Villages were Water Deficient 1980 : 2,31,000 Villages became Water Deficient 1985: 1,61,722 Villages still faced shortage 1994 :1,40,975 still left with Water Problems
  14. 14. The Water, that was earlier a Common Community Resource accessible to all the user groups in justifiable quantities for centuries, because of over exploitation turned in to a scarce & unsustainable commodity
  15. 15. of the 12 Mega biodiversity country Has 02 World’s Biodiversity Hot Spots 8% of World’s Biodiversity 81,000 Animal Species 45,000 Plant Species (6000 endemic) 50% of World’s Tigers 100% Asiatic Lions
  16. 16. 87 National Parks - 4.06 Million ha. 485 Wildlife Sanctuaries - 11.54 million ha. Total protected areas - 15.60 Million ha. 23 Tiger Reserves spread over - 3.3 million ha. 12 Biosphere Reserves 780 Forest Divisions 63,618 JFM – 14.09 Million ha.
  17. 17. as Ecological Processes do not respect National Boundaries and thus the Environmental problems often have impacts beyond the Borders.
  18. 18. Air Pollution Is a Big Killer 3 Million deaths per year world-wide Mostly in Asia Legal, economic, and technological tools can help to clean up air pollution, but much greater emphasis should be focused on preventing air pollution. Raise fuel-efficiency for cars, SUVs, light trucks & Heavy Vehicles Better regulation of emissions intense pressure needed from citizens to make improvements? Stricter emission standards for diesel-powered vehicles Link between international trade and air pollution - Cargo ships and Air Transport Emission trading or cap-and-trade program
  19. 19. Report by Sir Nicholas Stern for the UK government (published 2006) Global temperature rise 0.5 degree. Expected to rise by 5 degrees Environmental impact : Economic impact Melting glaciers increase flood risk- then drought. Crop yields to decline in tropics, particularly in Africa. Rising sea levels may displace 200 million people. Up to 40% of species may become extinct. More frequent extreme weather patterns. Rise of 2-3° – C reduced global GDP by 3%. A rise of 5°C - 10% of global GDP. The poorest countries would lose disproportionately more.
  20. 20. What makes India susceptible to Climate Change? Densely populated (rural and urban) - substantial poverty. Large coastal populations Diverse climatic zones Diverse economy with important climate dependant sectors such as agriculture and fisheries Many low-lying areas susceptible to extreme events
  21. 21. National Action Plan to counter Climate Change National Action Plan has eight Missions National Solar Mission National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency National Mission on Sustainable Habitat National Water Mission Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem National Mission for a Green India National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change Other Initiatives : Choice of mitigating technologies Super critical technologies, Integrated gasification Combined Cycle Natural gas based power plants, Closed cycle 3 stage nuclear power Hydro power and Other renewable technologies Disaster management response to extreme weather events-
  22. 22. Summary of the Major Annual Environmental Costs in India (5.2% of GDP=9.7 billion USD) 2% 14% Tourism 2% 3% Deforestation 20% Rangeland Degradation Soil Degradation (Agriculture) Surface Water Pollution 59% Urban Air Pollution
  23. 23. More People : More Resources “A persons Foot Print is the total area in Global Hectares required to sustain his/her Lifestyle” Bill Rees & Math Wackernagel,1996 Africa : 1.36 (Mozambique:0.47 & Burundi : 0.48) China : 1.54, India : 1.5, UK: 5.35, US : 9.7
  24. 24. Population Explosion, Industrialization, resultant Urbanization, Transmigration from villages, Wasteful use of available resources and Over exploitation of the Natural resources
  25. 25. What calls for our immediate attention? India is blessed with rich natural resources, But the resources are fast depleting Forest and arable land is being depleted due to Urbanization, Demographic overconsumption & Degradation. Water resources are depleting due to Wasteful use and Over exploitation, and are being contaminated due to Urbanization, Industrialization & Over use of Agro-chemicals. Wild life resources are being lost due to illegal poaching, Industrialization and Habitat loss
  26. 26. Threats to Natural Resources Urbanisation and Industrialisation Overpopulation Overconsumption and irresponsible use Deforestation Erosion Habitat Destruction Natural Hazards Unjustified & inequitable access to common resources such as Water & Air & Wilderness. 27
  27. 27. Externalities are steadily increasing and the cost of inaction is more than cost of action Thickly populated state & largest like U. P has less than 5% of geographical area under forest cover Fecal coliform at Varanasi is more than 200 times the prescribed standard for bathing at the Ghats after implementation of Ganga Action Plan 80 % of Disease and Sickness are Due to Water Borne and Water Related Diseases [WHO] Percapita availability of fresh water in India has decreased from 6000 cu mts/yr in 1947 to 2000 cu.mts/yr in 2001 current trends in 2020s likely to be 1600 cu.mts/yr In 1991 air pollution in Mumbai caused 1,91,000 cases of bronchitis in children,741000 cases of asthama and 4500 deaths per annum 28
  28. 28. Natural Resources are basis of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations Our Common Future, 1987
  29. 29. Critical Drivers Intl. treaty Obligations Stricter Regulations Proactive Judiciary Green Movement
  30. 30. INDIA’S TREATY OBLIGATIONS Conventions in which India plays a leading role: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. Convention on Conservation of Biological Resources. Convention for Climate Change. Vienna Convention, 1986. Montreal Protocol on ODS.
  31. 31. INDIA’S TREATY OBLIGATIONS Conventions & treaties to which India is signatory: Preservation of Fauna & Flora in their Natural State, 1936 Convention for the Regulation on Whaling, 1946 International Plant Protection Convention, 1951 The Antarctic Treaty, 1959 Protection of Workers against Ionizing Radiation, 1960 Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1975 Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, 1980 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982.
  32. 32. INDIA’S TREATY OBLIGATIONS Conventions & Treaties to which India is a contracting party: Convention of Wetlands, 1971 Protection of the World Cultural & Natural Heritage, 1972. Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973 Protocol of 1978 for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983 Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, 1986 Assistance in Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency,1986. In last 15 years 11Multilateral environemtal agreements have entered into force dealing with such issues as ozone depletion, transport of hazardous waste, and conservation of migratory species.
  33. 33. Judicial Activism and Proactive Judicial Response SC served closure orders on 9,038 Polluting Units at Delhi SC ordered immediate closure of 59 Industries in North Arcot district of Tamilnadu. Closure orders to Coastal Shrimp Aquaculture units SC took up Sue Moto petition of Bichri Case as PIL Patancheru Case
  34. 34. GREEN MOVEMENT Nylon 6, 6 Project of Thapar Dupond Ltd., - Stalled Integrated Steel Project & Power Plant in Mangalore - Shifted Sterlite Industries 60,000 Tpa Copper Smelter - stalled Tata Project to setup Aqua Farm - stalled Binani Zinc Project - stalled Goshree Integrated Island Development Plan, Kerala Cogentrix Coal based Thermal Power Plant, Karnataka M/s Sinar Mas Pulp and Paper (India) Ltd., Pune Sanghi Jetty/Cement Plant, Kutch, Gujarat.
  35. 35. What are we doing to save our resources ? The Government of India has undertaken many measures for the conservation of the resources Legal framework, Regulations & Institutions to ensure Proper and sustainable use of Natural Resources. Regulations & reforms for proper housing and infrastructure development to avoid land acquisition problems. Mass media public service messages to educate the people on the importance of conservation of resources. Increase the wildlife and forest reserves in the country. Schemes to do a proper inventory of the resources and monitor changes in the environment. Various projects & schemes that promote conservation. 36
  36. 36. Knowing where you are? Where you want to Go? and How you are going to get there?
  37. 37. Emerging Scenario Markets all over the World are GREENING Stringent Environmental regulations are emerging rapidly… Direct Market Based Self Regulation Incentives & Dis incentive Regime Economic/Environmental Sanctions
  38. 38. Paradigm shift FROM COMMAND AND CONTROL TO Prevention principle cooperative principle Participatory Environmental Management FROM STATE REGULATION TO SELF – REGULATION Voluntary standards ISO 14001, Responsible Care
  39. 39. FROM DISPUTE RESOULTION TO DISPUTE AVOIDANCE Improved Public Consultation Process Community Response & Right to know Increased Liabilities & Penalties Siting Rules & Impact Asseaament PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE The onus of proof is on the developer to show that his actions are environmentally benign Environmental Decision-Making Process: From TOP-DOWN to BOTTOM-UP
  40. 40. Environmental Legislation Emerging Trends Standards based on supporting or assimilative capacity of area and its safety requirements Pollution Taxation Trade Barrier Environmentally Conscious Financial institutions
  41. 41. Points to Ponder ?...!!! Stark choice = reject “the gods of profit” as holding out solution to ecological problems If We do not act fast: Ecological & social crisis rapidly spinning out of control, with irreversible & devastating consequences for all Human society & human economy has to co-exist within the larger biosphere Undermining conditions of life bound to undermine conditions of production it self Nature is not a commodity: attempting to treat it as such and make it subject to laws of self regulating market is irrational, leading to overexploitation of biosphere by failing to reproduce the conditions necessary for its continued existence
  42. 42. Think! What do we leave for our children?