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Skanska 20111021 horizontal leadership, managing change and complexity handout

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Skanska 20111021 horizontal leadership, managing change and complexity handout

  1. 1.  Horizontal  Leadership  –  Mastering  Change  and  Complexity    •  Important  Business  Challenges  -­‐  more  and   more  oBen  found  between  rather  than  in  the     organizaFonal  boxes?       How to lead horizontally across•    organizational boundaries without a   formal authority and mandate?    Gunnar  Westling,  Ph  D,  Center  for  Advanced  Studies  in  Leadership  at  the  Stockholm  School  of  Economics      
  2. 2. The  Challenge   Overall, research and 2000 years of change experience suggests: 70 % of all change initiatives fail Michael Beer and Nitin Nohria 2000
  3. 3. The  Challenge  Johns HopkinsRule of Change:90%of all terminally illpatients will notmakelifestyle changesnecessary to savetheir life.
  4. 4. By  necessity,  horizontal  interac;on  and  interdependencies  creates  interpersonal  mush   Interpersonal  Mush   -­‐  an  interac;on  by  two  or  more   people  based  on  stories  they  have   made  up  about  each  other  that   they  haven’t  checked  out        
  5. 5. By necessity, horizontal collaborations creates interpersoHow  to  create  value  out  of  mush?       Help  each  other  to  create  interpersonal  clarity  =  Know  what  my  experience  is,  know  what  your   experience  is,  and  know  the   difference  between  them      
  6. 6. Experience  Cube   Observa;ons   Thoughts   •  The  informaFon  you  get  from  your   •  What  happens  in  your  mind   senses.   •  Thoughts,  interpretaFons,   •  What  you  see  and  hear,  mainly.   fantasies...   •  No  interpretaFons,  thoughts  or   •  Share  by  describing  your  view,  no   feelings.   truths   •  SelecFve  percepFon  -­‐  check  -­‐receipt.   •  SelecFve  percepFon  -­‐  check  -­‐ receipt.   •  You  own  your  reflecFons.   Will/wants   Feelings   •  The  needs  you  get  in  contact  with   •  What  happens  in  your  body   •  What  you  wish     •  Feelings,  sensaFons,  reacFons   •  What  you  want  to  do   •  Share  by  describing  your  view,  no   •  What  acFons  you  want  to  take     truths   •  SelecFve  percepFon  -­‐  check  -­‐ receipt.   •  You  own  your  feelings.  
  7. 7. Challenges  during  the  ”Good  ol’  Fmes”   ”I  believe  that  this  na;on  should   commit  itself  to  achieving  the   goal,  before  this  decade  is  out,   of  landing  a  man  on  the  Moon   and  returning  him  safely  to  the   Earth”   Eight  years  later…  President  John  F.  Kennedys  A  Special  Address  to  Congress  On  The  Importance  of  Space  May  25,  1961      
  8. 8. InternaFonal  space  staFon  –   cooperaFon  between  15  naFons  “In  some  ways  it  was  easier  to  go  to  the  moon,  because  we  had  total  control,”  Cabana  (Astronaut)  said.    “We  didn’t  have  to  ask,  ’What  is  your  opinion  on  this?  How  do  you  want  to  do  it?  You  know,  we  just  dictated  to  ourselves  how  we  are  going  to  do  it.’  But  those  days  are  gone.  (O’Brien,  M.  “Earthly  Woes  Mount  for  InternaFonal  Space  StaFon”,  May  29,  2000.)    In  the  new  era  of  exploring  space,  the  biggest  challenge  is  on  ground  rather  than  in  space.    
  9. 9. 1   1.5   2   4   5   3   1   1   1.5   1.5  2   4   5   2   4   5   3   3   1   1.5   2   4   5   3  
  10. 10. To  Master  Challenge  –  Understand  Your   Network  
  11. 11. “Ver;cal  leadership”  Manage  a  group,  unit,  or  funcFon  Defined  responsibility  -­‐  authorizaFon  Allocated  resources  Rou$nes  +  processes  +  problem  solving  “Horizontal  leadership”  Manage  tasks  laterally  across  the  organizaFon  OBen  challenges  of  great  importance  –  unclear  who  is  responsible  Resource  allocaFon  based  on  negoFaFon/consent  of  others  Sencemaking+  network  +  prototypes    
  12. 12. CooperaFon  and  leadership  across  organizaFonal  barriers.    Is  it  a   good  idea?    •  Overall,  research  recommends:  ”Don’t  do  it,  unless  you   have  to”   (Huxham  och  Vangen,  2005)  
  13. 13. More  ”wicked”  problems?  Type  of  problem   •  The  problem  itself  appears  as  fragmented   •  The  problem  cannot  be  understood  before  soluFons  are  tried  out  in  pracFce   •  SoluFons  oBen  create  new  problems  ”Wicked”   •  The  problem  can  not  reach  its  final  soluFon,  There  is  not  “stop  rule”   •  Different  stakeholder  have  different  views  and  ways  to  understand  the  problem  ”Tame”   •  Sound  soluFons  can  be  worked  out  through  analysis   •  Couse-­‐effect  relaFonships  hang  together   •  It  is  possible  to  organize  ways  to  solve  the  problem   •  Act  fast  and  bring  more  resources  Crisis  Extraordinary  situa$on  
  14. 14. Linear  ”tame”  problem  solving   Working  on  ”wicked”  problems   Gather  data  Problem   Analyze  data   Formulate  solu;on  Solu;on   Implement  solu;on   Time  
  15. 15. AdopFon  curve   Number  of  ”supporters”   Typically     expected     Typically   experienced   (S-­‐kurva)   Time  Source:  Bresman,  INSEAD  
  16. 16. The  ant  perspecFve  When  we’re  totally  absorbed  by  the  challenge  
  17. 17. SoluFon  1:  Zoom  out  
  18. 18. SoluFon  2  Change  perspecFve  
  19. 19. SoluFon  3   VariaFon  
  20. 20. Conclusion  -­‐  The  leadership  challenge    Challenges  faced  by  organizaFons  are  foremost  found  in       hinterland  between  units  and  organizaFons  (rather  the  than  falling  neatly  into  boxes  in  the  organizaFon  ready  to  deal  with  them)     It  is  thus  as  important,  or  more  important,  to  understand  and  manage  the  social  complexity  of  a  problem  as  it  is  to  solve  the  problem  operaFvely/technically  
  21. 21. Conclusion: How to lead horizontally?1.  Big enough idea or vision and yet focused enough to create action2.  Understand links between the challenge and the organization’s mission and competitiveness3.  Carefully map stakeholders and their interests4.  Find a sponsor (insurance in bad times)5.  To be influenced is the best method to influence others.6.  Variation, innovation and “language games”7.  Respectful collaboration in small groups (create a “fellowship”8.  Early, hands-on prototypes!9.  Dare to confront10.  Endurance (”S-curve”)