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Modern olympics games

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THE MODREN OLYMPIC GAMES

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Modern olympics games

  1. 1. The Modern Olympic Games
  2. 2. Physical Department2 The Modern Olympic GamesIndex:1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................12. What do the Olympic rings mean?....................................................................................................... 23. The Olympic Oath................................................................................................................................ 34. Rings and Flag....................................................................................................................................... 45. Anthem...................................................................................................................................................56. Motto ..................................................................................................................................................... 67. Release of Doves..........................................................................................................................................7THE MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES1. INTRODUCTIONIt wasnt until after efforts by French Baron Pierre De Coubertin and the GreekDimitrios Vikelas that the games werebrought back to life after nearly 1500years in the wilderness. P. Coubertinbelieved that sport was a very strongpower that could inspire a feeling of unityand peace among the many nations of theworld. He believed that this desire couldbe brought about with the revival of theOlympic Games.After an unsuccessful attempt at revivingthe games, he finally achieved hisambition. In 1894 at an internationalcongress, which was actually devised for the study of amateur sports, he voicedhis view on the revival of the Olympic Games, and was delighted when the othercountries participating in the congress agreed with him. The InternationalOlympic Committee (IOC) was founded that year.Held in Athens in 1896 at the Panatheniac Stadium, the games heralded awelcomed return to the original beliefs and virtues of the ancient games. Withcompetitors from 14 nations, the games commenced on April 6th and came to aclimax on 15th April. There were 43 events, which were competed in by 245athletes, all of whom were male.Probably the biggest cheer of the 1896 Olympics was when a Greek Sheppard,Spiridon Louis, was victorious in the most popular of all events, the marathon.The athletes from the United States were also big winners in these games,winning 9 events.What is even more remarkable regarding this is that their Olympic squad barelymade it to Athens in time to compete.The Olympics have taken place every four years, since the first games in 1896.However, even the ideals of the Olympic Truce could not prevent the gamesbeing cancelled during the first and second world wars. The games cancelledwere the 1916 Olympics, due to be held in Berlin, the 1940 games to be held inTokyo and the 1944 games to be held in Helsinki.
  3. 3. Physical Department3 The Modern Olympic GamesThe Winter Olympic Games were introduced in 1924, and also took place everyfour years. However, it wasnt until 1992 that it was decided that the Olympicand Winter Olympic games would not take place in the same calendar year. TheWinter Games were moved forward two years to 1994, and would continue totake place at four-year intervals.Since the first modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896, the games havecontinued to grow throughout the years and more and more nations have beentaking part, as well as more events being included. During the 1896 games, 14nations took part. At the 2000 Sydney Olympics, 199 nations took part. In 1896there were 245 athletes (all male), in 2000 there were 10,651 (4069 women and6582 men). And in 1896 there were 43 events, compared to the 300 events atthe 2000 Olympics.1.1. What do the Olympic rings mean?The colours of the interlinked Olympic rings were chosen by the InternationalOlympic Committee (IOC) , torepresent the union of the 5 continents, Australia , Africa , America , Asia andEurope and further signify the meetingof the worlds athletes at the OlympicGames.The plain white background of theOlympic flag is symbolic of peace throughout the games .The five colors of the rings from left to right are blue, black and red across thetop with yellow and green along the bottom , these colors may be found on mostflags of the world and officially hold no other particular significance , althoughsome believe each color represents a particular continentBlue=EuropeYellow=AsiaBlack=AfricaGreen=AustraliaRed=America1.2. The Olympic OathThe Olympic Oath is taken by one athlete and one judge from the home nationduring the Opening Ceremony of every Olympics, acting on behalf of all thecompetitors and judges. Since 1984, this has been taken while holding a cornerof the Olympic flag. Until then, the national flag of the home nation was used.The oath was first taken by an athlete in 1920. Originally, this was primarily adeclaration that all the athletes wereamateurs. The wording has been revisedconsiderably over the years, however;amateurism is no longer a generalrequirement, and a specific reference todoping was added in 2000. The currentform is:In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these OlympicGames, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a
  4. 4. Physical Department4 The Modern Olympic Gamessport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the gloryof sport and the honor of our teams."The oath was first taken by a referee in 1972. The current form of that oath is:"In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in theseOlympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules whichgovern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship."1.3. FlagThe Olympic flag places the Olympic rings on a white background. As everynational flag in the world contains at least one of the flags six colors (black,blue, green, red, yellow, white), this further symbolizes the universality of theOlympics.The Olympic rings and flag were designed by de Coubertin after the 1912 Gamesin Stockholm. Those Games were the first to include athletes from all fivecontinents. The rings were going to be used in the 1916 Games, but those gameswere cancelled because of World War I, so the rings made their debut in the1920 Games in Antwerp, Belgium.1.4. AnthemThe Olympic Anthem was written for the first modern Games in 1896,composed by Spyros Samaras to lyrics written by Kostas Palmas. Eachsubsequent Olympics through 1956 had its own musical composition, played asthe Olympic flag was raised during the Opening Ceremony. From the 1960Games onward, the Samaras/Palamas work has been the official anthem playedat every Olympics.The English translation of the anthem is as follows:Immortal spirit of antiquityFather of the true, beautiful andgood,Descend, appear, shed over us thylightUpon this ground and under this skyWhich has first witnessed thyimperishable fameGive life and animation to thosenoble games!Throw wreaths of fadeless flowers tothe victorsIn the race and in the strife!Create in our breasts, hearts of steel!In thy light, plains, mountains andseasShine in a roseate hue and form avast templeTo which all nations throng to adorethee,Oh immortal spirit of antiquity!1.5. Motto
  5. 5. Physical Department5 The Modern Olympic GamesThe Olympic motto is Citius—Altius—Fortius,which is Latin for "faster, higher, stronger." Theintended meaning is that ones focus should be onbettering ones achievements, rather than oncoming in first.The motto has been with the Games from thefoundation of the International OlympicCommittee in 1894. It was proposed by the fatherof the modern Olympic Games, Pierre de Coubertin, who got it from a speechgiven by a friend of his, Henri Didon, a Dominican priest and principal of anacademy that used sports as part of its educational program.1.6. Release of DovesAfter the cauldron is lit, doves are released, as a symbolof peace. This was first done in the 1896 Olympics, andthen in the 1920 Olympics. Since 1920, this has been anofficial part of the Opening Ceremony of the SummerGames. They are generally not released during the Winter Games, because itstoo cold for the birds, but symbolic substitutions are sometimes used. In the1994 Winter Games, for example, white balloons were released.The order—first lighting the cauldron, then releasing the doves—is important. Inthe 1988 Seoul Games, they tried it the other way around. Unfortunately, manyof the doves were in the area of the cauldron just before it burst into flames,leading to their unexpected demise.

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