Dr.  Gunwant Joshi Chief Chemist Central Laboratory, Bhopal M.P. Pollution Control Board Water Issues at Focal point
Though Earth is a Watery Planet There is very little water we can use
Water available for use is only a  tiny fraction
Water that can actually be used is only a  tiny fraction of usable water
<ul><li>With Rising Population, </li></ul><ul><li>the water availability is going down </li></ul>
Source: World water resources at the beginning of the 21st century” prepared in the framework of ihp unesco
<ul><li>Drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal Water Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul...
&quot;If the Wars of this Century  were fought on Oil,  the Wars of the Next Century will be fought over Water&quot; Ismai...
<ul><li>USA & Mexico  :  R. Rio Grande, R. Colorado & R. Pecos   </li></ul><ul><li>USA & Canada  :  Great Lakes[ Erie, Hur...
<ul><li>R.Tigris & Euphrates  : </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, Syria, Iraq & the  </li></ul><ul><li>Kurds in all these countrie...
<ul><li>R. Indus Waters : With Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Jhelam  Waters : With Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Chinab Wa...
<ul><li>R. Sutlej  : Punjab – Haryana,Rajasthan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Yamuna  : Haryana, Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>R. Ganga  ...
<ul><li>The Water, that was earlier a Common Community Resource  </li></ul><ul><li>accessible to all the user groups  in j...
Most rivers in India have hardly any water left in summer
Groundwater depletion in India
<ul><li>With almost 70 percent, Agriculture is the largest abstractor of  Water resources </li></ul><ul><li>With increasin...
More People : More Resources <ul><li>With advent of Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>There is increasing Industrial demand ...
Water foot-print of  common foods items <ul><li>1 cup of coffee needs 140 litres of water. 1 litre of milk needs 1000 litr...
While Tube-well use is increasing,Tank irrigation is declining Groundwater is the major source of water in our country cat...
How efficient is the present paradigm? <ul><ul><li>Irrigation efficiency  is 36 per cent; i.e,  64 per cent water is lost ...
<ul><li>SURFACE WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Submergence & Displacement  </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation and Rehabilitation </li><...
<ul><li>Cities  are water stressed; </li></ul><ul><li>Many get water  once in 3 days ; </li></ul><ul><li>What we have is f...
<ul><li>1994 – 2004 : 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2001-2004 : 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>May 2004 to July 2004 : 950 </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Believe it or not, Cherrapunji which gets 11000 mm rainfall suffers from serious drinking water shortages </li></u...
<ul><li>Another Disastrous Aspect of Water problems is </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating Floods   </li></ul><ul><li>in Eastern...
<ul><li>In Bihar Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Several hundred million rupees have been spent </li></ul><ul><li>But flood affect...
Abstracting nearly 07 percent Water  Industry sector demands are quite high <ul><li>With Recent estimates at nearly 13 %, ...
<ul><li>Major Water Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Water Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriological Pollution  </li></ul><ul><li...
Major  Factors Responsible for WQ Degradation <ul><li>Domestic: 423 class I cities and 499 class II towns harboring popula...
<ul><li>Domestic sewage is the major source of pollution in India in surface water which contribute pathogens, the main so...
All the religious texts world over, consider water as Devine gift of the Gods bestowed on all living beings  to sustain th...
Hydrological Cycle
<ul><li>If   </li></ul><ul><li>the Resources could be freely moved from the  Regions of Abundance to that of Scarcity, </l...
<ul><li>Basic Conflict in Water Management is due to a paradigm shift </li></ul>[ ECOLOGICAL ] [MARKET] [ECOLOGICAL PARADI...
The major  Natural water quality components Catch wherever it falls Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received,  only about 600 BCM...
Dated as far back as 5000 years. Dholavira of the Indus Valley Civilisation was harvesting runoff in Thar desert of Rajast...
60% of the world’s available fresh water  supply is located in:  <ul><li>Brazil, Russia,  </li></ul><ul><li>China ,Canada,...
the inefficiency & inability of Community to transfer Water Resource from the place of availability  to the Point of Consu...
If the Resources could be freely moved from the regions of abundance to that of Scarcity, the needs of the people shall be...
<ul><li>Physical infrastructures (dams,pipes/canals) at huge cost often on borrowed funds </li></ul><ul><li>Most state gov...
<ul><li>Both these paradigm are Contrary to each other </li></ul>to Women : Travelling long distances for Drinking Water  ...
<ul><li>The Communities throughout the World Consider Water as Common Property and thus managed their Water Resources as C...
Considering  Water Scaricity in a Market Paradigm has it's Own set of Problems and The Market assumptions are blind  to th...
We must realise that there is no alternative to water Historically, Water Development Projects World Over have shown that ...
Make better use of ‘green water’ Increase water productivity in rain-fed agriculture
Eco Terrorism or Water Democracy ? We must Look Back to Our Traditional Wisdom ! Shri Anupam Mishra ^^ jktLFkku dh jtr caw...
^^eqfDr la?k&quot;kZ** Maharashtra, 1982  Bult Dam by Collective Efforts, 1989 Stopped Sugar Cane cultivation Harvested on...
The essence is small is beautiful LOCAL SOLUTIONS TO LOCAL PROBLEMS SUSTAINABILITY IS THE KEY
Thank You Progress is Must! Environment is First. But
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Water issues at focal point print

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This presentation deals with some of the issues related to water management in Indian context. This is slide show is developed as awareness generation material in context to general people

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Water issues at focal point print

  1. 1. Dr. Gunwant Joshi Chief Chemist Central Laboratory, Bhopal M.P. Pollution Control Board Water Issues at Focal point
  2. 2. Though Earth is a Watery Planet There is very little water we can use
  3. 3. Water available for use is only a tiny fraction
  4. 4. Water that can actually be used is only a tiny fraction of usable water
  5. 5. <ul><li>With Rising Population, </li></ul><ul><li>the water availability is going down </li></ul>
  6. 6. Source: World water resources at the beginning of the 21st century” prepared in the framework of ihp unesco
  7. 7. <ul><li>Drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal Water Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Use </li></ul><ul><li>Waste disposal </li></ul>Availability, Scaricity Pollution, Contamination, Eutrophication Q antity ality
  8. 8. &quot;If the Wars of this Century were fought on Oil, the Wars of the Next Century will be fought over Water&quot; Ismail Serageldin, 1995, Vice President, WORLD BANK Because of Continued scarcity of good quality of fresh waters in sufficient quantity there are conflicts
  9. 9. <ul><li>USA & Mexico : R. Rio Grande, R. Colorado & R. Pecos </li></ul><ul><li>USA & Canada : Great Lakes[ Erie, Huron, Michigan,Ontario & Superior] </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina & Brazil : R.Parana </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuador & Peru : R. Cenepa </li></ul>Regional Conflicts over Water AFRICA : R. Blue Nile Waters : Ethiopia [86% Flow], Sudan , Egypt , Uganda,Kenya,Tanzania, Eritrea . R.White Nile Waters :Burundi, Rwanda, Republic of Congo, Present Population in the region : 245 Million Projected Population in 2025 : 859 Million AMERICAS River Nile
  10. 10. <ul><li>R.Tigris & Euphrates : </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey, Syria, Iraq & the </li></ul><ul><li>Kurds in all these countries </li></ul>Regional Wars over Water R. Jordon : Israel [3% Basin ,82% Water], Jordon, Syria, Lebanon & West Bank Not only the River Waters, But even the Ground waters are also a potent cause of Conflicts
  11. 11. <ul><li>R. Indus Waters : With Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Jhelam Waters : With Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Chinab Waters : With Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Rawi Waters : With Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Ganga Waters : With Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>R. Brahamaputra Waters : With Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>R. Brahamaputra Waters : With China </li></ul><ul><li>R. Gandak Waters : With Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>R. Ghagghar Waters : With Nepal </li></ul>With our neighbours We are Fighting Over
  12. 12. <ul><li>R. Sutlej : Punjab – Haryana,Rajasthan </li></ul><ul><li>R. Yamuna : Haryana, Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>R. Ganga : Uttaranchal,UP,Bihar,Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>R. Indravati : Orissa, Chattisgarh </li></ul><ul><li>R. Mahanadi : Orissa, Chattisgarh </li></ul><ul><li>R. Krishna : Andhra [ Rayalseema] , Karnataka </li></ul><ul><li>R. Kaweri : Karnataka, Tamilnadu </li></ul><ul><li>R. Narmada : M.P.,Gujrat,36garh,Maharashtra </li></ul>In Our Own Country the states are Fighting and come summer we start fighting in neighborhood & Streets
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Water, that was earlier a Common Community Resource </li></ul><ul><li>accessible to all the user groups in justifiable quantities for centuries, </li></ul><ul><li>because of excessive exploitation turned in to a scarce & unsustainable commodity </li></ul>all the water has Gone Where ?
  14. 14. Most rivers in India have hardly any water left in summer
  15. 15. Groundwater depletion in India
  16. 16. <ul><li>With almost 70 percent, Agriculture is the largest abstractor of Water resources </li></ul><ul><li>With increasing Population, Cash crop farming and use of energy intensive practices, Water demands are increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate steps are necessary to reduce the water use in Farming Practices </li></ul>
  17. 17. More People : More Resources <ul><li>With advent of Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>There is increasing Industrial demand on Water Resources </li></ul>INDUSTRIALIZATION Faster production of Goods to meet growing demands More Pollution Larger Ecological Footprints 1999 Average E F P : 2.3 Global hactare/person coupled with Lifestyle changes Africa : 1.36 (Mozambique:0.47 & Burundi : 0.48) China : 1.54, India : 1.5; UK: 5.35, US : 9.7 Running Ecological Deficit with Earth (Rees’2K) (Hoekstra’2K8) (Willam Rees & Wackernagel’96)
  18. 18. Water foot-print of common foods items <ul><li>1 cup of coffee needs 140 litres of water. 1 litre of milk needs 1000 litres of water. 1 kg of wheat needs 1350 litres of water. </li></ul><ul><li>1 kg of Barley needs 1300 litres of water 1 kg of rice needs 3000 litres of water. 1 kg maize needs 900 litres of water </li></ul><ul><li>1 kg of Sorgham needs 650 litres of water. </li></ul><ul><li>1 kg of Chicken needs 3900 litres of water </li></ul><ul><li>1kg of Beef needs 22,000 litres of water </li></ul>
  19. 19. While Tube-well use is increasing,Tank irrigation is declining Groundwater is the major source of water in our country catering 85% of the total population demands. Groundwater water table decline is at the rate of 33 centimeters per year.
  20. 20. How efficient is the present paradigm? <ul><ul><li>Irrigation efficiency is 36 per cent; i.e, 64 per cent water is lost in transit and due to bad management practices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost recovery is 2 to 3 per cent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers at the tail end of a canal depends on the mercy of those at the head end to get even life saving irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy use of surface water – some rivers have no flow left in summer season </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy use of groundwater without recharging leading to falling water table all over the country </li></ul><ul><li>ADD on </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution of ground and surface waters from urbanization, industrialization and agricultural modernization. </li></ul><ul><li>The Large stretches of almost all our rivers are severely polluted [Yamuna:clinically dead at Delhi, Ganges River of dead bodies] </li></ul>How it all started?
  21. 21. <ul><li>SURFACE WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Submergence & Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Relocation and Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Compensatory Afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Water Logging </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Siltation </li></ul><ul><li>GROUND WATER </li></ul><ul><li>Depletion due to Over Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Wasteful Use </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Water Intrusion </li></ul>Water For Peace,1966 Massive Damming activity with American assistance World Bank Assisted Project on G W Development
  22. 22. <ul><li>Cities are water stressed; </li></ul><ul><li>Many get water once in 3 days ; </li></ul><ul><li>What we have is fast </li></ul><ul><li>getting polluted . </li></ul><ul><li>Drought is becoming more or less permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Even in “good” rainfall years, there is water stress </li></ul><ul><li>Even after a flood there is a drought </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 13% of total land area declared drought prone . </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>1994 – 2004 : 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2001-2004 : 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>May 2004 to July 2004 : 950 </li></ul><ul><li>Out of Which 650 only from Andhra </li></ul><ul><li>In 1972 : 1,50,000 Villages were Water Deficient </li></ul><ul><li>94,000 Tube Wells sunk </li></ul><ul><li>In 1980 : 2,31,000 Villages became Water Deficient </li></ul><ul><li> - 94,000 more Tube wells sunk </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985 : 1,61,722 Still faced shortage </li></ul><ul><li>1994 : 1,40,975 still left with Water Problems </li></ul><ul><li>We are Not only mismanaging our Surface Waters </li></ul><ul><li>We are also Mining Ground Water Unsustainably </li></ul>Suicides By Farm Workers
  24. 24. <ul><li>Believe it or not, Cherrapunji which gets 11000 mm rainfall suffers from serious drinking water shortages </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003 Kerala received 2000 mm, yet there were farmer suicides </li></ul><ul><li>Kalahandi (Western Orissa)-in News for Extreme Poverty and deprivation- often under drought and sometimes under flood </li></ul>Drought in not only about failure of rainfall
  25. 25. <ul><li>Another Disastrous Aspect of Water problems is </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating Floods </li></ul><ul><li>in Eastern India specially Bihar & Assam </li></ul>Floods kill hundreds of People each year in Bihar & Assam
  26. 26. <ul><li>In Bihar Alone </li></ul><ul><li>Several hundred million rupees have been spent </li></ul><ul><li>But flood affected area increased from </li></ul><ul><li>1977 : 2.93 Million hectares </li></ul><ul><li>2004 : 7.1 Million hectares </li></ul>Despite several hundred cror rupees spent for Flood control each year the extent of area inundated and the damage caused is steadily rising
  27. 27. Abstracting nearly 07 percent Water Industry sector demands are quite high <ul><li>With Recent estimates at nearly 13 %, Water demands are only increasing </li></ul><ul><li>A liter of Waste water renders another 07 liter unfit for any other use </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the actual Environmental demands are much more, and given the in-efficient use in Indian Industry situation is really alarming </li></ul><ul><li>Industry pays a pittance for the water it uses, and causes wastes </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Major Water Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Water Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriological Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen Depletion </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Major Factors Responsible for WQ Degradation <ul><li>Domestic: 423 class I cities and 499 class II towns harboring population of abt 22 Crore generate about 33,000 mld of wastewater of which only 6955 mld is treated. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial: About 57,000 polluting industries in India generate about 15,500 mld of wastewater out of which nearly 60% (generated from large & medium industries) is treated. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-point sources also contribute significant pollution loads mainly in rainy season. Pesticides consumption is about 1,00,000 tonnes/year of which AP, Haryana, Punjab, TN, WB, Gujarat, UP and Maharashtra are principal consumers. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Domestic sewage is the major source of pollution in India in surface water which contribute pathogens, the main source of water borne diseases along with depletion of oxygen in water bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage along with agricultural run-off and industrial effluents also contributes large amount of nutrients in surface water causing eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>A large part of the domestic sewage and industrial effluents are not even collected. This results in stagnation of these wastewaters within Towns & Cities, a good breeding ground for mosquitoes and contamination of the groundwater, the only source of drinking water in many cities. </li></ul>Major Factors Responsible for WQ Degradation
  31. 31. All the religious texts world over, consider water as Devine gift of the Gods bestowed on all living beings to sustain their life. To an Ecologists Water is a Renewable Natural Resource capable of self- replenishment through Hydrological Cycle
  32. 32. Hydrological Cycle
  33. 33. <ul><li>If </li></ul><ul><li>the Resources could be freely moved from the Regions of Abundance to that of Scarcity, </li></ul><ul><li>the needs of the people shall be met </li></ul>[MARKET PARADIGM]
  34. 34. <ul><li>Basic Conflict in Water Management is due to a paradigm shift </li></ul>[ ECOLOGICAL ] [MARKET] [ECOLOGICAL PARADIGM] In most Indigenous Communities Collective Water Rights & Management practiced and therefore All the Traditions and Cultural values in use and Management of an Ecological Resource Were therefore Planned & Practised recognizing Ecological Limits of the Area were the Key for Water Conservation & Harvesting
  35. 35. The major Natural water quality components Catch wherever it falls Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received, only about 600 BCM is put to use so far rest goes to the sea. Water Quality Chemical properties ( composition , partitioning, solubility of gases and other materials, osmosis, Diffusion, dispersion and other processes Physical properties (Thermal stability, viscocity, stratification, Transpirancy, vepour pressure and other other processes Biological processes (Photosynthesis, respiration, Nature and density of biological Communities Other biological processes Hydrological processes Flow regime, velocity, bed characters, periodicity, Advection, convection, Mixing, turbulence, Meandering, scouring, depositing
  36. 36. Dated as far back as 5000 years. Dholavira of the Indus Valley Civilisation was harvesting runoff in Thar desert of Rajasthan a technique still being practiced in most parts of Rajasthan state
  37. 37. 60% of the world’s available fresh water supply is located in: <ul><li>Brazil, Russia, </li></ul><ul><li>China ,Canada, </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia, U.S </li></ul><ul><li>India, Columbia, and </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic Republic of Congo. </li></ul>and still if we do not have enough water means there is something grossly lacking in our water management Where is our Traditional Wisdom?
  38. 38. the inefficiency & inability of Community to transfer Water Resource from the place of availability to the Point of Consumption Water Scarcity is caused due to [MARKET PARADIGM]
  39. 39. If the Resources could be freely moved from the regions of abundance to that of Scarcity, the needs of the people shall be met and Higher prices at the same time will lead to it’s conservation
  40. 40. <ul><li>Physical infrastructures (dams,pipes/canals) at huge cost often on borrowed funds </li></ul><ul><li>Most state governments have projects in the pipeline to bring water to cities from distant rivers or digging deep wells </li></ul><ul><li>These are funded by World bank/ADB </li></ul><ul><li>India has spent till date Rs. 2,92,767 crore ( Planning commission ) on water supply projects </li></ul><ul><li>Can such investments be sustained? </li></ul>[MARKET PARADIGM]
  41. 41. <ul><li>Both these paradigm are Contrary to each other </li></ul>to Women : Travelling long distances for Drinking Water to Farmer : Starvation & Destitution due to droughts and to Children : Dehydration & Death For Third World, Water Scaricity Means
  42. 42. <ul><li>The Communities throughout the World Consider Water as Common Property and thus managed their Water Resources as Commons, </li></ul><ul><li>[ in Democratic way] </li></ul><ul><li>ECOLOGICAL DEMOCRACY </li></ul>recognizing Community Rights and Collective Ways of Management
  43. 43. Considering Water Scaricity in a Market Paradigm has it's Own set of Problems and The Market assumptions are blind to the ecological limits set by Water Cycle & the Economic Limits set by Poverty Now What Way Should We Go? &quot; Market Paradigm or Ecological Paradigm&quot;
  44. 44. We must realise that there is no alternative to water Historically, Water Development Projects World Over have shown that Technological Solutions to the Ecological Problems under Market regimen have proven to be unsuccessful as a resource necessory for Biological Survival any attempt to deprive communities of any common resource shall be considered as Ecological Terrorism or Eco - Terrorism
  45. 45. Make better use of ‘green water’ Increase water productivity in rain-fed agriculture
  46. 46. Eco Terrorism or Water Democracy ? We must Look Back to Our Traditional Wisdom ! Shri Anupam Mishra ^^ jktLFkku dh jtr cawns ** ^^ vkt Hkh [kjs gS rkykc ** [ Treditional Wisdom of Rainwater Harvesting & Conservation in Rajasthan] [Traditional ways of Construction & Management of Lakes] Maharashtra, 1972 [ Shri Vikas Salunkhe] ikuh iapk;r^^xzke xkSjo izfr&quot;Bku** Equitable distribution of Water on basis of number of persons in the Family, rather than Land holding
  47. 47. ^^eqfDr la?k&quot;kZ** Maharashtra, 1982 Bult Dam by Collective Efforts, 1989 Stopped Sugar Cane cultivation Harvested only the Staple grains Kept aside 30% land for Multi sps. Plantation Democretically elected&quot;Patkari&quot; to look after Water Distribution Grown Fodder in 2000 acres Land for every 4 months to be distributed free for the Cattle Gujrat, water recharging structures and revived R.Ruparel in 1994 supplying water for 250 village, It was dried up in 1970's Shri Rajendra Singh, Tarun Bharat Sangh at Rajasthan Maharashtra, Shri Anna Hazare from Village Rale gan Siddhi Women Members of Pani Panchayat created
  48. 48. The essence is small is beautiful LOCAL SOLUTIONS TO LOCAL PROBLEMS SUSTAINABILITY IS THE KEY
  49. 49. Thank You Progress is Must! Environment is First. But

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