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Science past present & future


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Science past present & future

  1. 1. SciencePast, Present & FutureDr. Gunwant JoshiChief ChemistM.P. Pollution Control Board, BhopalInnovationApplication
  2. 2. Past, Present and FutureM.P. Pollution Control Board, BhopalDr. Gunwant JoshiChief ChemistCERN LHC
  3. 3. Acharya Kanad (600 BCE)He was the pioneer expounder of realism,law of causation and the atomic theory.He classified all the objects of creationinto nine elements : earth, water, light,wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul.Þi`fFkO;kiLrstksÞi`fFkO;kiLrstksÞi`fFkO;kiLrstksÞi`fFkO;kiLrstks ok;qjkdkok;qjkdkok;qjkdkok;qjkdk’’’’kakakaka dkyksfnXkRokeudkyksfnXkRokeudkyksfnXkRokeudkyksfnXkRokeu bfrbfrbfrbfr ææææO;kf.kO;kf.kO;kf.kO;kf.kßßßßHe said, "Every object of creation is made ofatoms which in turn connect with each other toform molecules." 2500 years before John Dalton.He further saidßæ"Vkuka] æ"VÁ;kstukuka] æ"VkHkkos Á;ksxks vH;qn;k;ÞFOUNDER OF ATOMIC THEORY, believed to have been bornin Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat, he propounded"Vaisheshik Darshan"- one of six principal philosophies of IndiaKanad also described the dimension and motion of atoms andtheir chemical reactions with each other.Seen by self, Shown to the others, and through theexperiments, done to know more details, lead the path to the Development.
  4. 4. The Worlds first university was established in Takshila in 700BC.More than 10,500 students from all over the world (Babylonia, Greece, Syria,Arabia and China) studied more than 60 subjects.The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatestuniversity in ancient India and Once housed over 90 lakh books
  5. 5. Acharya Charak (600 BCE)FATHER OF MEDICINE.Acharya Charak revealed through his innategenius and enquiries the facts on the humananatomy, embryology, pharmacology, bloodcirculation and the diseases like diabetes,tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. and alsoemphasized the influence of diet & activity onmind and body.He also proved the correlation of spirituality andphysical health contributed greatly to diagnosticand curative sciences.He further prescribed the ethical charter formedical practitioners two centuries prior to theHippocratic oath."Charak Samhita", considered to be anEncyclopedia of Ayurveda embodies hisprinciples, diagoneses, and cures besidesmedicinal qualities & functions of 100,000plants.
  6. 6. ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE)He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery andthe science of anesthesia. When surgery was in itsinfancy in Europe, Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty(restoration of a damaged nose) and other challengingoperations.He prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures &six types of dislocations, and his details on humanembryology are simply amazing.Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instrumentsincluding scalpels, lancets, needles, Catheters andrectal speculums. He has also described a number ofstitching methods; the use of horses hair & fibers ofbark as thread ."Sushrut Samhita," details 300 types of operations.The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation,caesarian and cranial surgeries.A master surgeon, Sushrut details first ever surgery procedures in"Sushrut Samhita," a unique encyclopedia of surgery.
  7. 7. ARYABHATT, Astronomer & MathematicianBorn in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar), Heremapped the boundaries of mathematicsand astronomy.In 499 CE, He wrote "Aryabhatiyam"Formulated the process of calculating themotion of planets and the time of eclipses.First to proclaim “The earth is round,it rotates on its axis, orbits thesun and is suspended in space”1000 years before Copernicus publishedhis heliocentric theory.He is also acknowledged for calculating p(Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and thesine table in trigonometry.Most spectacular contribution was theconcept of zero without which moderndevelopment in science & Technology wasnot possible
  8. 8. NAGARJUNA (100 CE)WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE & Metallurgy"Ras Ratnakar, Ras Hrudaya" and"Rasendra mangal" are his renownedcontributions to the chemistry.As the author of medical books like"Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," healso made significant contributions tothe field of curative medicine.Indians knew of extraction of Iron,GoldSilver,Zinc,Lead,Mercury & Copper from theores and also mastered technique ofmaking different Alloys from theseMetals such as Non rust Steel,Brass,Bronze etcgold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb)PanchlohaHis discoveries and inventions in chemistry &metallurgy were phenomenal.
  9. 9. Clay RetortRef. Rasaratna samucchayaMetallurgy – eco friendly Zawar process for Zinc (500 BC)The furnace has two chambers.One with inverted retortsanother with condensingvessels under each retort.Retort is filled with calcinedore, charcoal,salt etc. A reed isset in the middle and a funnellike condenser fitted at the endand sealed with the vessel.Retort is heated to 1200oC. to vaporisezinc. At this temperature reed gets burntand other materials release CO to createreducing atmosphere. Zinc trickles downthrough a path created by burnt reed.
  10. 10. Historian Vincent Smith writes“While we marveled at the skill shown by ancient artificers in forging the greatmass of Delhi pillar, we must give a still greater measure of admiration to theforgotten craftsmen, who dealt so successfully in producing the still moreponderous iron mass of the Dhar pillar monument”.14 meters in height and 7 MT in weight(3 pieces together), built by Bhojin (1000-1055AD) “is a largestnon corrosive Iron Pillar in the world”Kollur Pillar375CE327 CE
  11. 11. Bhāskara-I (600-680 CE)A Poet, Astronomer & MathematicianFirst to write numbers in the Hindu-Arabic decimal system with a circlefor zero, and gave a unique andremarkably rational approximation ofthe sine function in his commentaryon Aryabhatas work Āryabhaṭīya bhāṣya,in 629 CE, also wrote Mahā bhāskarīyaand the Laghu bhāskarīya.implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameteris ((4 + 100) × 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416
  12. 12. Bhaskaracharya II (1114-1183 CE)In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" hewrites on planetary positions, eclipses,cosmography, mathematical techniquesand astronomical equipment.In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes anote on the force of gravity: "Objectsfall on earth due to a force of attractionby the earth. Therefore, the earth,planets, constellations, moon, and sunare held in orbit due to this attraction."500 years before Newton.GENIUS IN ALGEBRA Born in Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra,his texts in Algebra, Arithmetic & Geometry, "Lilavati" and"Bijaganita" got translated in several languages of the worldAlso wrote texts on “Grahaganita” and “Goladhyaya”
  13. 13. Whatever I learnt from experts and whatever I confirmed by experimentation, onlythat, I have included in this book and whatever could not be confirmed has notbeen included in my book.Further, he states that my student should reconfirm by performing experiment bytheir own hands. Those who follow this is a true teacher and student.All others are just Drama Actors.Ref.13th Century book by YeshodharSuperfine Textile YOGA Ship buildingWalmiki [2500 BC]Yog vashisthaPatanjali [2400 BC]Indian system of Measurement of Distance, time & Making of Calendar
  14. 14. Vasco da Gama, as per his diary kept in SpanishMuseum, in 1497,saw a three times bigger ship inJhanjibar and met its Gujarati owner named“Skanda” with who’s help He came to IndiaIn 1811, Lt. Walker writes that East Indiacompany had an Indian ship “Daria Daulat”which did not require maintenance for 87 yearsHe further proved statistically, the Indian shipswere much cheaper & better in quality thanEnglish ships and advised East India Companyto use Indian ships onlyIndian Trade & Shipping1814 - British Government passed an act to banIndian ships and Indian sailors from visitingBritish Ports1863- Act was strictly implemented and heavytaxes were levied on the goods from Indian Shipsto bring about the end the Indian Ship Industry.
  15. 15. Some other Path Breaking Indian DiscoveriesÑÑÑÑffff=e=e=e=e Lo.kZLo.kZLo.kZLo.kZ jtr~ysijtr~ysijtr~ysijtr~ysi%%%% lRk~d`frlRk~d`frlRk~d`frlRk~d`fr ####P;rsP;rsP;rsP;rs;;;;o{kkjo{kkjo{kkjo{kkj e;ks/kkukSe;ks/kkukSe;ks/kkukSe;ks/kkukS lqlqlqlq’’’’kDrtykDrtykDrtykDrty~~~~ lfUu/kkSlfUu/kkSlfUu/kkSlfUu/kkSvkPNkn;frvkPNkn;frvkPNkn;frvkPNkn;fr rRrkezarRrkezarRrkezarRrkeza Lo.ksZu~jtrsuLo.ksZu~jtrsuLo.ksZu~jtrsuLo.ksZu~jtrsu~ ok~ ok~ ok~ oklqo.kZfyRialqo.kZfyRialqo.kZfyRialqo.kZfyRia rRrkezarRrkezarRrkezarRrkeza ’’’’kkrdqaHkfefrkkrdqaHkfefrkkrdqaHkfefrkkrdqaHkfefr LeLeLeLe`ra`ra`ra`raThe largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106(10 to thepower of 6) whereas Indians used numbers as big as 1053(10 to the powerof 53) with specific names as early as 5000 BCE during the Vedic periodEven today, the largest used number is Tera, ie, 1012(10 to the power of 12)Agastya samhita [3500/2700 BC] Electrical energyChemical to Electrical energy conversion [Kumbh]100 cells [shat kumbh] Electrolysis & electroplatinglaLFkkIlaLFkkIlaLFkkIlaLFkkI;;;; e`.e;se`.e;se`.e;se`.e;s ikikikik=s=s=s=s rkezirkezirkezirkezi=a=a=a=a lqlaLd`relqlaLd`relqlaLd`relqlaLd`re~~~~Nkn;sfPNfNkn;sfPNfNkn;sfPNfNkn;sfPNf’’’’kf[kxzhosukf[kxzhosukf[kxzhosukf[kxzhosu pknzkZfHkpknzkZfHkpknzkZfHkpknzkZfHk%%%% dk"Bdk"Bdk"Bdk"B ikalqfHkikalqfHkikalqfHkikalqfHknLrkyks"VsnLrkyks"VsnLrkyks"VsnLrkyks"Vs fu?kkrOfu?kkrOfu?kkrOfu?kkrO;;;; ikjnPNkfnrLr~rikjnPNkfnrLr~rikjnPNkfnrLr~rikjnPNkfnrLr~rla;ksxkTtk;rsla;ksxkTtk;rsla;ksxkTtk;rsla;ksxkTtk;rs rstksrstksrstksrstks fefefefe====o#.ko#.ko#.ko#.k lafKrelafKrelafKrelafKre~~~~vusuvusuvusuvusu tyHkaxksfLrtyHkaxksfLrtyHkaxksfLrtyHkaxksfLr izk.ksizk.ksizk.ksizk.ks nkusnkusnkusnkus’’’’kqkqkqkq ok;qok;qok;qok;q"kq"kq"kq"kq,,,,oaoaoaoa ’’’’krkukakrkukakrkukakrkuka daqHkkukadaqHkkukadaqHkkukadaqHkkuka la;ksxla;ksxla;ksxla;ksx dk;Zadk;Zadk;Zadk;Za ÑÑÑÑr~Le`rar~Le`rar~Le`rar~Le`raok;qok;qok;qok;q cU/kdcU/kdcU/kdcU/kd oLoLoLoL====s.ks.ks.ks.k fuc?nksfuc?nksfuc?nksfuc?nks ;;;;kukukuku eLrdseLrdseLrdseLrdsmnkumnkumnkumnku Loy?kqRosLoy?kqRosLoy?kqRosLoy?kqRos fofofofoHkRokdkHkRokdkHkRokdkHkRokdk’’’’kkkk ;;;;kudekudekudekude~~~~Viman shastra - by Maharshi BhardwajaMechanics,Kinetics & Machines- Prashastpad Bhashya on Vaisheshik sutraTown planning & Architecture – Maharshi WishwakarmaBhrugu Shilp shastra Samhita: Maharshi BhruguMantra Chintamani - Maharshi Chakradhar
  16. 16. Jagdeesh Chandra Bose (1858-1937)Response of Plants & metals tomechanical, thermal, chemical, andelectrical stimulus“The invisible light can pass throughbrick walls, buildings etc. Therefore,messages can be transmitted bymeans of it without wires.”"J.C. Bose successfully generated microwave andmili meter waves. " He was at least 60 years aheadof his time" and In fact, he had already anticipatedthe existence of P-type & N-type semiconductors.“Great Indian Polymath, Physicist, Biologist , Botanist,Archeologist & Science fiction writer
  17. 17. Prafull Chandra Ray (1861-1944)For first time made stable Mercurous Nitrate &other Mercury, Copper and Magnesium salts.Established Bengal Chemical & PharmaceuticalWorks Ltd.1885 obtained his BSc degree and1887 DSc from University of Edinburgh on“Conjugated Sulphates of the Copper-magnesium Group: A Study of IsomorphousMixtures and Molecular Combinations.”Authored “ A History of Hindu Chemistryfrom the Earliest Times to the Middle ofSixteenth Century” in(1902).
  18. 18. Sriniwas Ramanujan (1887-1920)With no formal training in pure mathematics, madeextraordinary contributions to Mathematical Analysis, ,Number theory, infinite series & Continued FractionsBy age of 12, mastered Trigonometry by S.L. Loney;Discovered new theorems and independently re-discovered Eulers identity, Bernoulli numbers andthe Euler–Mascheroni constant.G.H. Hardy, recognizing his work, invited Ramanujan to visit &work at Cambridge. He Was awarded a B.A. degree by research(this degree was later renamed PhD) in March 1916 for his workon highly composite numbers,He became a Fellow of the RoyalSociety and a Fellow of Trinity College for his investigation inElliptic functions & the Theory of Numbers."By 13 October 1918 Ramanujan independently compiled nearly3900 results (mostly identities and equations) which inspired avast amount of further research
  19. 19. February 28,1928, C.V. Raman & K.S. Krishnan,ledthe experiments on scattering of light discovered theRaman Effect & further proved the quantum nature of light.Also worked on Accoustics,Vibrations of Indian Musicalinstruments, Spectroscopicdetermination of structure ofcrystals, Optics of collides,Electrical and Magneticproperties, and also onPhysiology of visionChandrashekhar Venkat Raman (1888-1970)
  20. 20. There are 3.22 Million Indians in America.38% of Doctors in America are Indians.12% of Scientists in America are Indians.36% of NASA employees are Indians.34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians28% of IBM employees are Indians17% of INTEL employees are Indians13% of XEROX employees are IndiansHot mail & JXTr : Sabeer Bhatia,Pentium: Vinod DhamArun Netravalli: HDTV,
  21. 21. India is:the largest democracy in the world2nd largest population (youngest in World)4th nation to have a nuclear submarine5th largest economy in the world5th nation in the multi billion dollar space commerce4th nation in the world to develop ICBMs (14,000km)3rd nation to develop land & sea based cruise missilesIndia is the 7th nuclear power in the world
  22. 22. 2,500 National level R & D institutions/ 0.9% 0f GDPScientific publications:1998-16,500 to 2007-30,000Scientists No.(per Million) & Research SpendingUSA - 1,571,000 (4700) 368 Billion US DollarsChina- 1,423,000 (510) 106 Billion US DollarsIndia - 154,000 (156) 24 Billion US DollarsEach year India produces ::::400,000 - Engineering Graduates300,000 – Computer Science Graduate Professionals20,000 – Science Post Graduates200 million have Mobile phonesOver 40% population earns less than 1.5 US $ a dayIndia : Fact sheet
  23. 23. 64% of Indians -15 to 60 yrs age :::: Demographic advantage‘‘‘‘Every stomach to feed comes with a Brain & Two handsEvery stomach to feed comes with a Brain & Two handsEvery stomach to feed comes with a Brain & Two handsEvery stomach to feed comes with a Brain & Two hands’’’’1. Curiosity, ability to Dream, Out of Box ideas and Innovations.2. Education of Quality promoting above entities3. Dignity of working with own hands & Spirit of EntrepreneurshipWorld is turned in to a Global Village due toFASTER means of TRANSPORT andQUICKER sharing of KNOWLEDGE (INFOTECH)
  24. 24. SpaceSpaceSpaceSpaceEnergyNew Materials [Polymers?]Green ChemistryNanno-technologyCleaner Production TechnologyA global success story from India! The Tata Nanocar was developed using the experiences &requirements of the Indian market.Its unique compact features combined with a verylow price tag make the car not only ideally suitedfor Indias domestic market, but also forinternational markets particularly in urban areas.BioBioBioBio ---- Technology & Sustainable AgricultureTechnology & Sustainable AgricultureTechnology & Sustainable AgricultureTechnology & Sustainable Agriculture
  25. 25. “GM Crops and Food Security”National Science Day’ 2013Bio-Technology : Genetically Modified CropsUSA, Argentina, Canada, Brazil, China, IndiaBenefits of Genetically Modified CropsPestsResistance.Higher productivityHigher Nutrient statusPlanned introduction of Vaccines
  26. 26. Problems associated with GM crops:- Genetically modified Seeds are very costly.- Adverse Changes in soil ecosystem.- Soil contamination through GM crop residue.- Genetic contamination through Horizontal Gene Transfer.-Crops may be affected by New/ resistant pest species &require newer and costlier pesticides.-Changes in Agrochemical usage with negative impacton the Soil microbes.- GM seeds from earlier crops lying dormant may volunteerafter long period of dormancy
  27. 27. NAFTA : Corn : Maize ConflictLoss of Jobs & Food security in MexicoUnited StatesMexico332 Production in Mill. MT 20. 2<200 (80% GM) Varieties >50,000Varieties contributing 80% of Net Crop08 35 (10 with>5%)110 $/MT Cost of Production 210 $/MT$262/ha Crop Subsidy $90/ha+80% Post NAFTA subsidy -28%Post NAFTA Maxican imports 323 %Post NAFTA Maxican Sale Price - 48%
  28. 28. #1 Global Position #450% Live stock feed 15%40 % Bio Ethanol 10 %10% Exports 05%03 % Human Consumption 68 %09% Starch, Corn Oil, Sweetener 03%Transmigration of young peopleRise on Crimes & NarcoticsCollapse of Economy & AgricultureUnited States : MexicoNAFTA : Corn - Maize Conflict
  29. 29. Beej Bachao AandolanVolume 25 - Issue 02 ::Jan. 19-Feb. 01, 2008INDIAS NATIONAL MAGAZINEfrom the publishers of THEHINDUVijay Jardhari is on amission to create abank of indigenousseeds to share withother farmers.BIODIVERSITYSeeds’ soldierin Garhwal Himalayas,UttarakhandNavdanya:SEED FREEDOMDevinder Sharma:Indian AgricultureDr. R. H. Richharia22,500 accessionsRice germ plasm bank
  30. 30. Please thinkWhat do we leave for our children?
  31. 31. ReferencesA history of Hindu Chemistry- Acharya P.C.RoyThe Positive sciences of ancient Hindus-Brajendranath Seal & Motilal BanarsidasBharat me Vignyanki Ujjwal Parampara- Suresh SoniSeveral books by Gunakar MuleyPersonal Communication with Dr. V. S. Wakankar