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Chapter 14 Narrative


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Chapter 14 from Teaching Reading Sourcebook, 2nd edition

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Chapter 14 Narrative

  1. 1. Chapter 14: Narrative Reading Teaching Reading Sourcebook 2nd edition
  2. 2. Narrative Reading <ul><li>Comprehension instruction typically begins with narrative text because children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop an awareness of narrative text early; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connect narrative text elements to their own lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Narrative Text include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fables, folk tales, fairy tales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fantasies, science fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myths, legends, tall tales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plays, poems, short stories, novels </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Story Structure <ul><li>Recognizing story structure is a prerequisite to effective strategy use. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing story structure helps students identify what is relevant for understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Story elements include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A story map is a graphic organizer for narrative text structure. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Strategy Application <ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially teachers model the types of questions readers need to ask while reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answering questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher directed questions can encourage deeper levels of comprehension. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers model thinking aloud self monitoring questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connecting to World Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers guide students to connect to relevant prior experiences or to other stories. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Strategy Application <ul><li>Predicting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers guide students to make predictions based on prior knowledge or story structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructing Mental Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers provide explicit teaching to help students create mental images as they read. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative text summaries often take the form of retelling and focus on story elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize collaborative discussion among learners. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Research on Transactional Theories <ul><li>Meaning is not found in text alone but is constructed by reader and text. </li></ul><ul><li>Group interpretation is different from that of any single reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, group work helps students internalize the processes of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Response to Literature: This refers to how readers form personal responses through discussion and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Strategies Instruction TSI: This emphasizes collaborative discussion, metacognition, motivation and reader response. </li></ul>
  7. 7. When to Teach, Assess, Intervene <ul><li>Comprehension instruction should begin as soon as students interact with text and continue through high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn comprehension strategies in tandem with word-level strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable comprehension assessment should be aligned with instruction and include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing assessments of strategy use; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retellings, student think aloud protocols, and other process-focused measures, which can be used for diagnosing and remediation. </li></ul></ul>