Chris Arterton


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La importancia de la estrategia en las campañas electorales (en inglés)

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Chris Arterton

  1. 1. “ STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC PLANNING IN CAMPAIGNS” Presentation by Christopher Arterton Dean of The GSPM 10 de Mayo 2007
  2. 2. TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED <ul><li>I. OVERALL APPROACH TO THE CAMPAIGN STRATEGY </li></ul><ul><li>A. Separating Strategy from Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>II. CAMPAIGN PLAN OVERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>A. What is a Campaign Plan </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sections of the Campaign Plan </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL ELEMENTS OF THE CAMPAIGN PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>THE CAMPAIGN BUDGET AND SCHEDULE </li></ul><ul><li>AUDIENCE AND MESSAGE DEVELOPMENT </li></ul>
  3. 3. STRATEGIC APPROACHES TO CAMPAIGNING <ul><li>1. An Approach based on Military Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>2. A Planning Approach </li></ul><ul><li>A Communications Approach </li></ul><ul><li>An Interactive Approach </li></ul>
  4. 4. Strategy from a Military Perspective <ul><li>Goals and Focus over the Longer Term </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking on the Highest Level </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the Larger Picture in Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Command and Control of the Campaign – Integration of Units </li></ul>
  5. 5. Strategy from a Communications Perspective <ul><li>Who is my Audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my Message? </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE MESSAGE GRID What THEY will say about THEIR candidate. What WE will say about THEIR candidate. What THEY will say about OUR candidate. What WE will say about OUR candidate.
  7. 7. Strategy from an Interactive Perspective <ul><li>Conflict between Two (or more) Intelligent, Antagonistic, Competing Wills </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes Reflect the Joint Interaction of Opposing Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy is Controlling the Interaction </li></ul>
  8. 8. Strategic Planning in Campaigns <ul><li>The Written Campaign Plan </li></ul>
  9. 9. WHAT IS A CAMPAIGN PLAN? Why do I need one? <ul><li>1 RATIONAL ALLOCATION OF (SCARCE) RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>2 FOCUSING DEVICE: STRATEGY VS. TACTICS </li></ul><ul><li>3 AN INTERNAL TREATY [personalities, access, power, and disputes over direction] </li></ul><ul><li>4 PERSEVERANCE AND CONSISTENCY “Hanging in there” when the going gets rough Knowing When to Revise(?) </li></ul>
  10. 10. SECTIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN PLAN (Part 1) <ul><li>1. PRECISE STATEMENT OF GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>ASSUMPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES a. Candidate’s b. Opponent’s </li></ul><ul><li>4. VOTER ANALYSIS a. Past Elections b. Polling c. Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>5. RESEARCH a. Policy Issues b. “Opposition research” (self and opponent) </li></ul>Guillermo Bertoldi
  11. 11. SECTIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN PLAN (part 2) <ul><li>OPTIONS AND DECISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>a. What factors are in your control? </li></ul><ul><li>b. What factors don’t you control? </li></ul><ul><li>c. When do decisions have to be made? </li></ul><ul><li>7. MESSAGES AND THEMES </li></ul><ul><li>8. THE BUDGET </li></ul><ul><li>9. A (REALISTIC) FUNDRAISING PLAN </li></ul>
  12. 12. SECTIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN PLAN (part 3) <ul><li>10. FREE MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>11. SCHEDULING PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>PAID ADVERTISING </li></ul><ul><li>13. CAMPAIGN STAFF a. Headquarters Staff b. Field Organization c. Volunteers </li></ul>
  13. 13. CENTRAL THREADS OF A CAMPAIGN PLAN [What resources can be allocated?] <ul><li>MONEY </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHY (TRAVEL) </li></ul><ul><li>TIME (USEAGE AND CALENDAR) </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONNEL (STAFF AND VOLUNTEERS) </li></ul><ul><li>IDEAS/MESSAGES </li></ul>
  14. 14. MONEY…..MONEY..MONEY <ul><li>THE CAMPAIGN BUDGET </li></ul><ul><li>How to Spend the Campaign Dollar </li></ul><ul><li>What to Spend Your Money On </li></ul><ul><li>When to Spend your Campaign Dollar </li></ul><ul><li>Running up a Debt </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Budgeting Control </li></ul><ul><li>Self Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Others </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE CAMPAIGN SCHEDULE (Part 1) <ul><li>TIME IS SCARCE </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal “personal” time </li></ul><ul><li>Sum of campaign time </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHY AND THE SCHEDULE </li></ul><ul><li>SCHEDULING BY TYPES OF EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Fundraising </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Voters </li></ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul>
  16. 16. THE CAMPAIGN SCHEDULE (Part 2) <ul><li>THE CAMPAIGN DAY </li></ul><ul><li>CONFLICTING DEMANDS AS A PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>WHOSE IN CHARGE? </li></ul><ul><li>INSULATING THE CANDIDATE </li></ul><ul><li>FUNDRAISING REVISITED </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Audience: Targeting your message; Focusing your campaign <ul><li>THE CANDIDATE, CONSULTANTS AND CITIZENS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership, Responsiveness and Manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who “Owns” The Campaign? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEARNING YOUR ELECTION DISTRICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who’s who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving the district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data, data, data </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. MESSAGE ELEMENTS <ul><li>What does the Candidate want to say? </li></ul><ul><li>What are audiences prepared to hear? </li></ul><ul><li>a. The General Electorate </li></ul><ul><li>b. Activists and Your Organization </li></ul><ul><li>c. Your Base </li></ul><ul><li>c. The Undecideds </li></ul><ul><li>d. Non-Voters </li></ul><ul><li>e. Journalists </li></ul><ul><li>f. Micro-targeting </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and dramatization </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity and repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Message Control and Discipline </li></ul>
  19. 19. SECTIONS OF THE CAMPAIGN PLAN <ul><li>1. PRECISE STATEMENT OF GOALS </li></ul><ul><li>ASSUMPTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES </li></ul><ul><li>VOTER ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIONS AND DECISIONS </li></ul><ul><li>7. MESSAGES AND THEMES </li></ul><ul><li>8. THE BUDGET </li></ul><ul><li>A (REALISTIC) FUNDRAISING PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>10. FREE MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>11. SCHEDULING PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>PAID ADVERTISING </li></ul><ul><li>13. CAMPAIGN STAFF </li></ul>
  20. 20. EIGHT RULES OF STRATEGY <ul><li>Competitive interaction creates a fluid dynamic. Planning cannot be a straight-jacket. Flexibility not formulas. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor your assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy is cerebral: thinking not doing! </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is as important as reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions and timing need to be considered separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the initiative (OODA loop) </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to “hinge points” in coalitions (theirs and yours) </li></ul><ul><li>If your opponent is in crisis, do nothing. If you are in crisis, get the whole story out fast. </li></ul>
  21. 21. “ STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR CAMPAIGNS” Christopher Arterton The Graduate School of Political Management The George Washington University 1-202-994-5843 [email_address] Thank you!