20 cent review


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  • Analytic Cubism -Semiotics + structural linguistics (A sign to signify something – how meaning can change given context) s.l. = meaning of words in a sentence given context -Meaning is fluid and ambiguous- the relationship of signs constructs the signification -Facetted planes (conversion of 3D into 2) and color flattens the picture plane -Movement from iconic to symbolic representation Text – stops the canvas from being a window into another world
  • Synthetic Cubism – brings outside objects together to create a new whole -Oil cloth brings the grid of the canvas into the representational -Surface demarcates pictorial space -Peculiar decision to collapse two forms of spatial experience – looking vertically and horizontally at the same time -Transition from analytic cubism (just painting) to synthetic cubism (added things of the world to representation)  emerges specifically through collage (introduction of mass-culture into the realm of high-art) -”Low” Material -Play on signification – taking objects from everyday life and changing their context and value
  • Expressionism -Flattening canvas -Geometric logic of canvas overtakes representational logic of what we see -Broad expanses of color -”I do not literally paint that table but the emotion it produces in me” – subjective and emotional relationship with subject matter (as opposed to literal) -Emphasizes the increasing departure of art from representation (move towards modern art as we know it now) -Color distracts from details of depiction – eye circulates canvas (cannot focus on a central motif, but on the piece as a whole) -Cannot penetrate the canvas -More autonomous – escape from mass culture -Expansion, circulation, tension -Color doesn’t describe anything just gives an emotion
  • Futurism -Signifier of speed – motor car is dematerialized by the movement -Trying to understand speed -Even though it is not realistically depicted, speed is still the subject -Embrace of technology and speed – pro war -Disjunctive qualities of cubism exasperated with futurism -Destruction of tradition – beauty in machines -Dynamism
  • Dada -Photomontage to show the deformation of the bourgeois subject – source of mockery (or is it a celebration of female beauty?) -ambiguity of meaning is crucial to image – BUT collage not for absurdity - has a specific theme -Criticizing disorder brought about by rationality of modern society -Cutting and pasting = violent way of putting things together -Degradation of classical nude
  • De Stijl -Pushing representation as far as it can go before abstractions -Rid of depicting world and expression -Wanted to avoid rhythm and depth -Not locked into the canvas .. Rounded edges -Reduction for the essentials of art and colors
  • Suprematism -Engages with flatness of the canvas  mixture of fragmentation and representation -Interested in Futurist sense of Dynamism and cubist flatness -Canvas is no longer window onto the world – it is an object (materializing) -Supremitism was meant to overcome AND incorporate cubism and futurism -Reduction to a single object -Tension between what you want to see and what you do see – creates dynamism -Modernist dilemma – distinction between history and modernist historicism -By locking things into the surface has gotten rid of the window aspect and turned the painting into an object
  • Constructivist -Abstract constriction -Move into real space
  • Constructivist -Logical and scientific art -By getting rid of artists hand – no longer creative artist but artist as engineer -No longer about ideas – how to engage with the materials -Deductive structure, all parts related to the original geometric shape
  • Surrealism – automatic drawing -Compare to automatic writing – derived from psychoanalysis trying to paint fast enough to catch automatic thoughts -opposite of constructivism -imagination is only free space left – justified -Embrace error and chance -Dada = Chance discontinuity and absurd  in opposition to science and rational -THEN surrealism would want to make a science OF the absurd itself -Trying to be objective -Super-ego does not have time to repress the subconscious
  • Surrealism – found abject -Objective chance -Cinderella ashtray  idea is so perplexing that it comes to him in his dreams (unconscious) -Phrase takes on meaning when he makes the connection with the object, by chance (valorization of the old – surrealist) -Unconscious drive that brought him to the flea market even though he didn’t know it -This object wouldn’t have meaning for anyone but Breton -Imagination in the only area not territorialized by modern life -General excitement in accessing the unknown -Unconscious desire fulfilled – by finding the object
  • Surrealism – surrealist object/collage -Does not create any of the things he is using  takes two found things and puts them together -Creates absurd juxtapositions -The reason you would think of these as aesthetically interesting is because they somehow get at your subconscious -Act of violence not reciprocity -More symbolic resonance -
  • Surrealism? -Interconnectivity -Odd narrative (bachelor’s semen going into the machine, then up to the bride) -Photography, yet dust is light  even more basal (excruciating process) -Indexical marks – dust, -Glass cracked, toy gun (purposeful, but beyond control of composition) -Each layer is a further level of time -Not seeing the female figure even though it he insists its there
  • Pure ready-made -absurdity and lack of skill – attack on high art -Initiation as a painter directly follows the legacy of the cubists -Announces the end of painting and the end of procedures of sculptural and __ representation -Not on a pedestal – infiltrates the distinction between sculptural/virtual space and the space of the real world -Juxtaposition btw stool and bicycle wheel – mobility vs. stability how are we meant to understand this – ultimately a work of movement or stasis? -What constitutes art is the fact that he did it – authorship is central to making it high art
  • Ready-made Ready-made allowed him to leap past questions of craft medium and taste It becomes a proposition, not a visual experience (invites new types of questions)
  • Abstract Expressionism -Derives drip methods from Masson and other surrealists -All-over composition (Greenburg) no hierarchy of composition -Tied to nature -Breaks the traditional verticality of painting – results in sublimination of the carnal instincts of beauty Rosenburg -Dionysian -Importance of the act and the gesture -One to one relationship between painter and artist (absolute freedom), painter is separate from his political allegiances BUT this is an illusion, many of these artists are funded by the government Greenberg -Apollonian -Optical space (flatness) -At-onceness of painting – uniformity throughout the painting -Painting can only be about the materials -Painting must address flatness and delimitation
  • Harlem Renaissance (Abstract expressionist) -Black content but strove to represent universal condition -Universitality – does not mean getting rid of politics and figures -Incorporates culture into expression -Individuality AND have to represent people and community -Prove skill by copping masters BUT moderinist art strives for creativity -Christian Myth is the greatest expression of man’s humanism
  • Abstract Expressionism -color as most non-tactile aspect of visual field
  • Abstract Expressionism -Getting the Pollock effect without the means -Drips are there but don’t allow their expressive power- constrained and vertical -No action involved
  • Indeterminacy -Transformed the reception of the abstract impressionist paint stroke -No optical flatness – literal flatness -Cold abstraction -Disrupts “at-onceness” / only dealing with painting and not outside world  Comparable to Cage  opening up to the outside realm and duration -According to Greenburg painting is not temporal, but he does open it to time (no permanent nature) -What else can a blank canvas be? Ready-made (Duchamp) -Specificity of the space -Eliminating humanistic artistic quality -Believed that it was the logical end to painting – consequence of complete reduction -White surface is a screen
  • Indeterminacy -Anything can serve as musical composition -Introduces an idea of passivity (composer doesn’t really need to “compose” or control sounds) -4:33 – ambient noise -Interacting with outside space – does not guard a fundamental idea Outside realm, duration Not Antonymous – incorporates everything from the outside world Directly challenging Greenburg – collapse of modernist theory
  • Neo-Dada -Introduces non-traditional materials to the canvas -Opposes abstract expressionism because it pushes itself into the cultural context (from nature to culture) – not pop because it is not commoditization -Renunciation of individuality -Layering injects a sense of time into the painting -Allegorical time
  • Neo-Dada -”Combine” – incorporates painted canvas surface and various objects – hybrid between a painting and a sculpture -More literal bringing in of the outside world (Compare to white painting)
  • Neo-Dada -Nonlinear narrative and participation of the audience -Key elements are planned but they retain room for improvising -Eliminates boundary between artwork and its viewer (audience are part of the art..) -Overcomes limitations of painting -Self-conscious and you realize you are taking part
  • Performance Art – Neo-dada -Body as a privileged material for liberation (desublimation of sexuality) and as a site of oppression -Both artist and material -2 nd wave feminism -Action more important than actual product
  • Neo-dada -Fluxus -Making artwork out of everyday events (readymade action – art can be made without even noticing -Everything reduced – notice things you wouldn’t notice before -disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered creative practice -explicitly including commercial -not maintaining snobbish aloofishness
  • Pop Art -Representations of American culture played a utopian role – promised a better life for those in England -Made for an advertising poster but includes parody -Excessive masculinity/femininity -Title is a rhetorical question -Using advertising language -Woman seems to rule the interior but she is also a commodity -Interior penetrated by outside world
  • Pop Art -wanted to get rid of expression -Trying to get rid of the expressive mark that had been so important to the abstract impressionists -Silk-screen process – literally no mark of the artists hand -Mimics the commercial realm -Morbid subject matter -Error of mass media incorporated on purpose -Kind of ready-made – turning art into manufacture
  • Pop Art -Low art  high art -Leaving decisions up to the commercial world -Repetition of mass media -Interpolation
  • Not classified in any movement – enamored by surrealist unconcious Kept the human form (abstract expressionism?) Harlem Renaissance -Speaks to African American situation -Collage -Puts human figures into the collage (Same two pressures) -Representational – focus is reception not production -Semblage/configuration -Speaks to poverty
  • Harlem Renaissance -Resembles Warhol’s shrine to Madonna -Black power, black is beautiful -Cultural codes of fashion, stereotypes, politics
  • Constructivist (B/C of his material determination .. People adapt his style into minimalism) -Works were produced by painting a series of flat black stripes until it was all covered -White of canvas showing through, not painted white lines (only thing on the canvas is black paint) -Similar to Johns Flag – foreground and background don’t exist Logic – why Stella cannot be dismissed (clearly intentional) -Deductive structure -the entire composition is determined by a single or a couple divisions of the visual field -Relation of composition to overall shape/format of the canvas -Thickness of stretchers mirrors width of stripes (modularity) -The logic encompasses the canvas as image AND object -The substantiality foregrounds the presence of the painting w/in 3D space – “a slab within real space” **Through his logic, recovering strategies of Malevich and Rodchenko (yet he did not have access to the logic of these painters)  understanding the logic of modernist painting Stella does not accept all of the implications of the black paintings – does not follow all of these implications further Later works show the relation between composition and shape
  • Minimalist Sculpture -Seriality, repetition -Stella but 3D -Rid of Artist -Turns art into the actual material – color not what artist selects but color of the material -Internal complexity
  • Neither Painting nor Sculpture .. Minimalism -External systems of composition -Rid of artists hand -Rid of applied color -Reversal of optical flatness -Move from imaginary space to actual space -Materiality of the object will dissolve
  • Post-Minimalist Sculpture -Incomplete without the viewer -Bodily perception does not require the viewer to be an intellectual -Anti-elitism (do not need knowledge or taste) -Relationship between viewer and form -Not able to grasp its totality because its never really complete -Does not exist or cohere prior to the viewer -Opposed by Fried
  • Post-Minimalism -No canvas -Leaves Work on the ground, dependant on architectural space -Material, not self-expression -Specifically refers to the place of reception (the gallery) and who is determining art -Refers to action of painting
  • Post-Minimalism (Organic Minimalism?)
  • Conceptual -Same object viewed in three ways, each gives a concept of the object -No hierarchy of form (material chair is not more important than the others) -Next step after monochrome = dissolving the canvas -What limits the domain of art?  art has to be a statement about art -Materials are not the limitation
  • Conceptual -Dissolved the canvas but now bringing it back -Duchamp removed manual skill – readymade (shifts to the register of someone else’s skill) *Nominal designation
  • Conceptual -Idea of carving away at her own form (internally – starving herself) -Diminishing a sense of desire  almost scientific analysis -Both the subject and the object -Morphing idealized nude into a real body -Exposing herself to starvation juxtaposed with exposure of film
  • Performance -Performance art evolves from two areas: Happenings and minimalism -Design of space is similar to minimalist sculpture (Morris) -Burden lived up on this shelf for two weeks without making his presence known  he becomes the minimal object -Playing with the idea of how minimalist sculpture gives you the feeling of a human presence – there actually is a human presence but it is not made explicit -Nothing to see except the institution
  • Performance -Interested in gender transformation – this interest turned violent -Though it is considered performance it is done without an audience, what is left is the trace of the body -Site vs. non-site
  • Post-Modernist -Self-Portraits in staged movie-like positions -Culturally designed femininity is always a disguise  feminism = constructed -Undermines the archetype/generic portrayal -Make viewer stop and reflect -Distances us from images that are familiar and makes it harder to connect
  • Post-Modernism -Appropriation of old photos -With film there is no original – if I can change this image I become the artist
  • 20 cent review

    1. 1. Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie , 1911-12
    2. 2. Pablo Picasso, Still Life with Chair Caning , 1912
    3. 3. Henri Matisse, The Red Studio , 1911
    4. 4. Giacomo Balla, Abstract Speed: The Car Has Passed , 1913
    5. 5. Hannah Hoch, Dada-Ernst , 1920-21
    6. 6. Piet Mondrian, Composition #10 Pier and Ocean , 1915
    7. 7. Kazimir Malevich, Black Cross , 1915
    8. 8. Vladimir Tatlin, Corner Counter Relief , 1914-15
    9. 9. Aleksandr Rodchenko, Spatial Construction no. 12 , c. 1920
    10. 10. André Masson, Automatic Drawing , 1924
    11. 11. Man Ray, André Breton’s slipper-spoon, 1934
    12. 12. Man Ray, Gift , c. 1958 [replica of a 1921 original]
    13. 13. Duchamp, The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) , 1915-23
    14. 14. Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel ( Bicycle Wheel on a Stool), 1913 (replica, 1951)
    15. 15. Marcel Duchamp, Fountain , 1917 (photo by Alfred Stieglitz)
    16. 16. Jackson Pollock, Lavender Mist: Number 1 , 1950
    17. 17. Hans Namuth, Photograph of Jackson Pollock at work, 1950
    18. 18. Romare Bearden, He Is Risen (The Passion of Christ Series) , 1945
    19. 19. Helen Frankenthaler, Mount Sinai , 1956
    20. 20. Lee Krasner, Cool White , 1959
    21. 21. Rauschenberg, White Painting [Three Panels], 1951
    22. 22. John Cage, 4’33 ”, 1952 [score in proportional notation]
    23. 23. Jasper Johns, Flag , 1954
    24. 24. Robert Rauschenberg, Odalisk , 1955/58
    25. 25. Allan Kaprow, 18 Happenings in 6 Parts , October, 1959
    26. 26. Carolee Schneemann, Eye Body , 1963
    27. 27. George Brecht, Word Event , 1961
    28. 28. Richard Hamilton, Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? 1956
    29. 29. Andy Warhol, Gold Marilyn Monroe , 1962
    30. 30. Andy Warhol, Brillo Boxes , 1964
    31. 31. Romare Bearden, Black Manhattan , 1969
    32. 32. Barkley Hendricks, Lawdy Mama , 1969
    33. 33. Frank Stella, Getty Tomb , 1959
    34. 34. Donald Judd, Untitled (Stack) , 1969
    35. 35. Dan Flavin, Monument I for V. Tatlin , 1964
    36. 36. Robert Morris, Untitled ( Two L-Beams) , 1965 [two views]
    37. 37. Richard Serra, Splashing , 1968
    38. 38. Eva Hesse, Accession II, 1967
    39. 39. Joseph Kosuth, One and Three Chairs , 1965
    40. 40. Joseph Kosuth, The First Investigation (Art as Idea as Idea) [Art] , 1967
    41. 41. Eleanor Antin, Carving: A Traditional Sculpture , 1972
    42. 42. Chris Burden, White Light/White Heat , 1975
    43. 43. Ana Mendieta ,Silhueta Series (Red Pigment) , 1976
    44. 44. Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #3 , 1978
    45. 45. Sherrie Levine, After Walker Evans No. 4 , 1981