Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
How to Save a Byte Information Technology Standards Electronic Records Management Conference Gina Strack Utah State Archives
 
Introduction <ul><li>The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archiva...
Scope <ul><li>WHAT (retention schedules) </li></ul><ul><li>WHY (the law) </li></ul><ul><li>HOW: Long-term preservation* </...
Basic Requirements <ul><li>authentic; </li></ul><ul><li>complete; </li></ul><ul><li>accessible and understandable; </li></...
Authentic <ul><li>The electronic record is what it claims to be </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dates (cr...
Complete <ul><li>Nothing added or removed inappropriately </li></ul>
Methods <ul><li>Plan systems, technology, formats & specifications well </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of available standards ...
Formats <ul><li>The ideal preservation format is: </li></ul><ul><li>stable and standardized </li></ul><ul><li>free of pate...
Images - TIFF <ul><li>T agged  I mage  F ile  F ormat </li></ul><ul><li>Uncompressed or Lossless compression available </l...
Images - JPEG <ul><li>Avoid if possible! </li></ul><ul><li>“ lossy” compression = unrecoverable information </li></ul><ul>...
Preservation vs. Access <ul><li>Separate standards and formats for  separate functions </li></ul><ul><li>Access methods (p...
Text <ul><li>Recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XHTML, HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SGML ...
XML <ul><li>Open international standard </li></ul><ul><li>Successor to HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li...
XML Examples <ul><li>iTunes music and movie information </li></ul><ul><li>Medical records exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Trans...
Reading XML <ul><li><library> </li></ul><ul><li><book> </li></ul><ul><li><title>Harry Potter</title> </li></ul><ul><li><au...
PDF <ul><li>Preserves original layout & format </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary (Adobe) though openly documented </li></ul><u...
PDF/A <ul><li>International Standard  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 19005-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latest version July 10, 200...
Archives Digital Collections <ul><li>Master TIFF  </li></ul><ul><li>Display JPEG (smaller dimensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Me...
Summary <ul><li>open standards </li></ul><ul><li>uncompressed </li></ul><ul><li>will not alter record </li></ul><ul><li>mi...
References <ul><li>Brown, D. L. (2004). Library and Archives Canada: Guidelines on Computer File Types, Interchange Format...
Fine <ul><li>Gina Strack </li></ul><ul><li>Utah State Archives </li></ul><ul><li>801.531.3843 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_add...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Saving A Byte

541 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Saving A Byte

  1. 1. How to Save a Byte Information Technology Standards Electronic Records Management Conference Gina Strack Utah State Archives
  2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The archives should articulate requirements for preservation and accessibility to ensure that archival records remain available, accessible, and understandable through time. </li></ul><ul><li>International Council on Archives, Electronic Records Workbook (2005) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Scope <ul><li>WHAT (retention schedules) </li></ul><ul><li>WHY (the law) </li></ul><ul><li>HOW: Long-term preservation* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*beyond the life of the original software or media, includes PERMANENT </li></ul>
  4. 5. Basic Requirements <ul><li>authentic; </li></ul><ul><li>complete; </li></ul><ul><li>accessible and understandable; </li></ul><ul><li>processable; and </li></ul><ul><li>potentially reusable </li></ul><ul><li>Source: International Council on Archives </li></ul>
  5. 6. Authentic <ul><li>The electronic record is what it claims to be </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dates (creation, receipt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applicable process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>part of a larger system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a comment on content of record </li></ul>
  6. 7. Complete <ul><li>Nothing added or removed inappropriately </li></ul>
  7. 8. Methods <ul><li>Plan systems, technology, formats & specifications well </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of available standards </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation vs. Access (more later) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Formats <ul><li>The ideal preservation format is: </li></ul><ul><li>stable and standardized </li></ul><ul><li>free of patent rights (public domain) </li></ul><ul><li>as simple as possible </li></ul><ul><li>fully self-descriptive, not dependent on external sources </li></ul><ul><li>suitable for containing structured and self-selected metadata </li></ul><ul><li>fully documented (open specification) </li></ul><ul><li>not application or platform based, but easily exchangeable </li></ul><ul><li>used and implemented widely </li></ul><ul><li>easy to implement and to check for errors (validation) </li></ul><ul><li>Digitale Archivering in Vlaamse Instellingen en Diensten (DAVID) Project [Antwerp City Archives] </li></ul>
  9. 10. Images - TIFF <ul><li>T agged I mage F ile F ormat </li></ul><ul><li>Uncompressed or Lossless compression available </li></ul><ul><li>Widely supported </li></ul><ul><li>Independent of operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Documented specification </li></ul><ul><li>Large file sizes, end-users sometimes cannot view </li></ul>
  10. 11. Images - JPEG <ul><li>Avoid if possible! </li></ul><ul><li>“ lossy” compression = unrecoverable information </li></ul><ul><li>Small file size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>derivative or access images </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Preservation vs. Access <ul><li>Separate standards and formats for separate functions </li></ul><ul><li>Access methods (printing, copying, viewing on the web…) change and will keep changing </li></ul><ul><li>Plan from beginning how to handle both </li></ul>
  12. 13. Text <ul><li>Recommended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XHTML, HTML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SGML </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TXT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word DOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library and Archives Canada. Guidelines for Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards </li></ul>
  13. 14. XML <ul><li>Open international standard </li></ul><ul><li>Successor to HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible, e X tensible </li></ul><ul><li>Programming and Formatting available (XQuery, XSLT, style sheets) </li></ul>
  14. 15. XML Examples <ul><li>iTunes music and movie information </li></ul><ul><li>Medical records exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation fleets </li></ul><ul><li>Online descriptions of Archives records (“finding aids”) </li></ul><ul><li>… and thousands more </li></ul>
  15. 16. Reading XML <ul><li><library> </li></ul><ul><li><book> </li></ul><ul><li><title>Harry Potter</title> </li></ul><ul><li><author>J.K. Rowling</author> </li></ul><ul><li></book> </li></ul><ul><li></library> </li></ul>“ tags” can be anything though often defined by industry- or platform-specific standards nested tags for structure
  16. 17. PDF <ul><li>Preserves original layout & format </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary (Adobe) though openly documented </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread use </li></ul>
  17. 18. PDF/A <ul><li>International Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 19005-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latest version July 10, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by National Archives for permanent Federal records </li></ul><ul><li>Based on PDF 1.4 (~ Reader 5.0) </li></ul><ul><li>“developed to allow PDF to be used as an archival format” </li></ul>
  18. 19. Archives Digital Collections <ul><li>Master TIFF </li></ul><ul><li>Display JPEG (smaller dimensions) </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata (description of content, creation & process) in XML </li></ul>
  19. 20. Summary <ul><li>open standards </li></ul><ul><li>uncompressed </li></ul><ul><li>will not alter record </li></ul><ul><li>minimum tools/software to use </li></ul>
  20. 21. References <ul><li>Brown, D. L. (2004). Library and Archives Canada: Guidelines on Computer File Types, Interchange Formats and Information Standards. </li></ul><ul><li>International Council on Archives. (2005). Electronic records: A workbook for archivists. </li></ul><ul><li>National Archives. NARA Electronic Records Management (ERM) Guidance on the Web. http://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/initiatives/erm-guidance.html </li></ul><ul><li>All references linked on “Resources for Further Study” on Archives’ Electronic Records web page: http://archives.utah.gov/main/index.php?module=Pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=1&pid=201 </li></ul>
  21. 22. Fine <ul><li>Gina Strack </li></ul><ul><li>Utah State Archives </li></ul><ul><li>801.531.3843 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

×