Poorer nations left behind More vulnerable to Western models of press & entertainment Western-style entertainment media raise frustrations Poorer nations less able to contribute their way of seeing the world Increases antagonism toward the U.S. & other Western media leaders But study after study has shown declining space and airtime devoted to international news. One recent analysis by the Newspaper Advertising Bureau estimated that, before September 11, foreign stories accounted for 2 percent or less of the average daily paper's newshole, down from 10 percent in 1971 during the Vietnam War; another estimated that the proportion of international news in the major newsweeklies had declined to 13 percent from 22 percent between 1985 and 1995. Before September 11, network newscasts on some nights had no international stories at all, though a generation ago foreign reports constituted an average of 45 percent of the newscasts. The reduction in international coverage has brought complaints from policy analysts, who argue that the decline fueled a new isolationism in the United States and that, as a result, the country might fail to exercise appropriate leadership in the world. Celinda Lake, a Democratic pollster, told a 1997 conference on the issue: &quot;The media cover violence, conflict, and instability abroad and little else, and have made international involvement look very undesirable.&quot; Those who described themselves to Gallup as &quot;hardly interested&quot; in international affairs jumped from 3 percent to 22 percent, between the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations studies in 1990 and 1998 Western media rarely report about economic abuses, political collusion, & the relationship between transnationals & democracy Report on poverty, disease, disasters
CI - invasion of an indegenous people’s culture by powerful foreign countries through mass media Information flow from west to developing countries - subverts local culture cheaper to but us products than to produce own. American producers flood world with content at cheap prices Imposes western values & formats/content (talk shows, violent content) Media can bring us closer together - build more connections - but what understanding? But knowledge can bring change - hip/hop culture/ michael jordan,
What shapes the News? Global Journalism
Journalism and SOCIETY Rather than society being our own community, city, region, state or even country, we are now, more than ever, part of the world community.
How did we get to this point? The evolution of globalization.
Three step process <ul><li>The rise of the nation-state (1492-1800): powerful governments dominated the world (France, Great Britain, Spain, etc) and they controlled commerce and the transmission of information. </li></ul><ul><li>1800’s through the mid-1990’s: multi-national businesses controlled commerce and influenced governments, sometimes even surpassing the governments in power. </li></ul>
Then came the Internet . And nothing has been the same since.
Governments can’t control information <ul><li>• How can the French government control their own culture if the French people can read anything on the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Last fall, the reigning government in the Honduras tried to shut down the media but word spread on the Internet around the world. </li></ul>
Multi-national businesses are also losing their stranglehold. <ul><li>Macy’s may own all the department stores but you can now go on the Internet and bypass the major retailers. You can go straight to the manufacturers, or smaller retailers. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, we see constant acquiring, merging and partnering of companies. </li></ul>
Such as … <ul><li>JP Morgan Chase </li></ul><ul><li>ExxonMobil </li></ul><ul><li>Miller/ Coors/ SAB </li></ul><ul><li>DaimlerChrysler </li></ul><ul><li>GlaxoSmithKline </li></ul><ul><li>WCW/ WWE </li></ul><ul><li>Dow/ Rohm & Haas </li></ul><ul><li>Anheuser Busch/ InBev </li></ul><ul><li>Macy’s owns Bloomingdales, Strawbridges, Filene’s, Hecht’s, Kauffman’s, Burdine’s, etc. </li></ul>
Do you feel the impact of global conglomerates?
Think about the media use log and the impact of the media on your life. Who tells you what products are the best?
The major media operations are European or American. So what?
<ul><li>With so much information coming out of so few operations, is there a threat to society? </li></ul>
With so few people controlling all of the world’s messages, are we creating a massive cultural hegemony?
Eat like an American. <ul><li>More than 31,000 restaurants in 119 countries, serving 47 million people daily. </li></ul>
Whose culture will dominate the world? Even without mass media?
What’s the harm in the world being able to watch Friends?
You can watch the Simpson’s in dozens of languages around the world!
MTV is available in more than 400 million homes around the world. Gulp .
Does conglomeration and globalization undermine native cultures?
Cultural Imperialism ? <ul><li>Mass media is used to open & control new markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Media promote unified tastes (for example, non-regional dialects). </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial media stimulate desire in consumer culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports unequal power relations & dependency. </li></ul>
Negative Trends of Globalization <ul><li>Poorer nations left behind </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer nations less able to contribute their way of seeing the world </li></ul><ul><li>Western media focus on negatives: poverty, disease, disasters </li></ul>
Positive Trends of Globalization <ul><li>Globalization of media increases freedom to report news </li></ul><ul><li>Communication gadgets empower individuals to seek out information; create reports; challenge authority </li></ul><ul><li>International news system keeps people connected in “real time” </li></ul>
When the monks protested in Myanmar, we heard about it despite the government shutting down the Internet.
Does conglomeration and globalization force people away from the major media outlets?
Yes. The MASS MEDIA is NOT personal . In trying to reach the largest audience, the content is more and more watered down.
Elsewhere … <ul><li>• Journal-Register own the suburban ring community papers </li></ul><ul><li>• PMH owns city neighborhood papers </li></ul><ul><li>• New Times media owns alt weeklies across the country </li></ul><ul><li>• Community and niche websites are popping up everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>• YouTube and bloggers are everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>• iReports on CNN and other citizen journalism </li></ul>
There will always be the massive operations. But the middle operations will struggle to reinvent themselves.
Hyperlocal will survive. People will always want to know what happened in their neighborhood.
What are you going to do? Now that you know the media is evolving, what do you want to do in your career?