Ch 31 PowerPoint

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The wonderful world of fungi.

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Ch 31 PowerPoint

  1. 1. Ch 31: Fungi By: Monica Puccetti
  2. 2. 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs <ul><li>They can’t make their own food. </li></ul><ul><li>They gain nutrients by secreting powerful hydrolytic enzymes into their surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>The enzymes break down complex molecules into smaller ones that the fungi can absorb into their bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>They play an important role in ecosystems as decomposers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Body Structure <ul><li>Most common are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts). </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae is a continuous network of tiny filaments in the mushroom and the surrounding area. </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal hyphae form an interwoven mass called a mycelium. This infiltrates the fungi’s food. </li></ul><ul><li>Chitin strengthens fungal cell walls, like cellulose in plant cells. </li></ul>
  4. 5. 31.5 Fungi as decomposers, mutualists, and pathogens <ul><li>Without fungi life as we know it would not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Without them necessary elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and others would remain stuck in organic material. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fungi as Mutualists <ul><li>Endophytes: Fungi that live inside leaves or other plants parts without causing them harm. </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi also help in the digestive process of animals, helping to break down plant material. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Fungi as Pathogens <ul><li>30% of the 100,000 known species of fungi are parasites or pathogens, mostly of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 50 species of fungi infect animals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fungal infection in animals is called mycosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many opportunistic mycoses have become more common in humans, due to the recent insurgence of AIDS which compromises the immune system. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Practical Uses of Fungi <ul><li>Humans uses fungi to make cheese, bread, and alcoholic beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics, such as Penicillin, are produced by growing them in fungus. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic research on fungi is leading to advances in biotechnology. </li></ul>

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