Working Memory Model - Sunwoo, Marz

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Working Memory Model - Sunwoo, Marz

  1. 1. Sunwoo Park, Marjolein Stevens Working Memory Model
  2. 2. Background information <ul><ul><li>In 1974, created by Alan Baddeley and Graham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To explain how the Short Term Memory works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Multi store’ model was too simplistic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual task paradigms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performing two tasks using two different perceptual domains is efficient. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT performing two tasks using the same perceptual domain is less efficient than performing one task. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Working Memory Model <ul><ul><li>Central executive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological loop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuo-spatial sketchpad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic Buffer </li></ul></ul>Slave Systems
  4. 4. Working Memory Model
  5. 5. Central Executive <ul><ul><li>Supervisory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the cognitive process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls, manipulates, and processes the information that flow from and to slave systems (Phonological loop and Visuo-spatial sketchpad) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathers information from different sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the slave systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts between tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective attention </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Phonological Loop <ul><ul><li>Sound and verbal information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital for learning languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological store (inner ear) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses sound based code to store information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information decays after 2 seconds, unless it is rehearsed by the articulatory process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Articulatory rehearsal component (inner voice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can revive the memory traces </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearses information verbally by repeating it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time based capacity: 2 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Visuo-spatial Sketchpad <ul><ul><li>Temporary storage and process of visual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Remembering shapes and colors, or the location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic (movement) components </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Episodic Buffer <ul><ul><li>In 2000, Episodic Buffer was added by Baddeley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects information across domains to for unity of visual, spatial, and verbal information with chronological ordering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to long term memory </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Strengths of Working Memory Model <ul><ul><li>Elaborates on short term memory: instead of short term memory being static storage of information, becomes dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves both active processing and temporary storage of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is involved in all complex tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes verbal rehearsal as an optional process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-> More realistic than the enormous significance within the ‘Multi store’ model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrates a large amount of findings from work on short term and working memory </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Limitations of Working Memory Model <ul><ul><li>The role of central executive remain unclear and difficult to test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is hard to measure limited capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise constraints of central executive function are unknown. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic buffer has not been investigated extensively and its functions remain unclear. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Comparing and Contrasting with Other Perspectives <ul><ul><li>Seeing as the learning perspective ignores mental processes completely, working memory model discredit the learning theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The mental process and the mental repetition of the word were so influential on the outcome of the experiment of working memory model. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed entirely independently from the psychodynamic approach. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography <ul><ul><li>http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Baddeley%27s_Model_of_Working_Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://alevelpsychology.co.uk/cognitive-psychology/memory/working-memory-baddeley-a-hitch-1974.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cranepsych.com/Psych/Working_memory_evaluation.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.adppucrs.com.br/informativo/CONTRIBUTIONS.pdf </li></ul></ul>

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