What could you get for going on one of the Crusades? BINGO!
The First Crusade (1096) saw three armies of knights and peasants led by French nobles reinforce Constantinople before moving on to Jerusalem . ?
Along the way, they slaughtered entire Jewish communities. When they reached Jerusalem , they began a two month siege of the city.
When the city fell, the Crusaders massacred most of the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants.
Soon, most of the Crusaders went home. The others set up feudal states in Syria and Palestine .
The Europeans who stayed would be in contact with the more sophisticated Byzantines for the next 100 years, ending Europe’s cultural isolation . Byzantine Barbie ...not like that Theodora tramp...
Less than 50 years later, the Second Crusade was called by Pope Eugenius IV to regain Palestinian territory taken by the Seljuk Turks.
Unfortunately for the West, the Turks saw the rise of a great leader. Saladin captured Jerusalem in 1187.
The HRE Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, King Philip Augustus (Philip II) of France, and King Richard I of England led the “Crusade of Kings” (3rd Crusade). Let’s kick some Turk booty!
Frederick died on the way. Philip just went home before reaching Jerusalem. Richard I defeated the Muslims in many battles, but could not take Jerusalem. Finally, a treaty with Saladin allowed Christian pilgrimages to the city.
Many other Crusades followed. None ever secured complete Christian control over Palestine or Jerusalem. By now it was all about $$$. Now THIS is a Crusade!!
The 4th Crusade got a little off track and attacked Constantinople, weakening it for the Turks. Thanks buddy! Oops...
The other Crusades were not completely about religion, but they all used religion as an excuse to take other people’s stuff. How were the Crusades good for Western Europe?
Effects of the Crusades in Europe: 1. More central authority and taxes. 2. Breakdown of feudal system. 3. Cultural diffusion. 4. Demand for spices from the East. 5. More artisans: shipbuilding, map making, armorers, bankers, etc…