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Chpt 1 Intro[1]


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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectures on the work of Peter G. Northouse

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Chpt 1 Intro[1]

  1. 1. Leadership Leadership Theory and Practice, 3/e Peter G. Northouse, Ph.D. William Kritsonis, PhD Presenter
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Conceptualizing Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Followers & Leadership </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conceptualizing Leadership <ul><li>The focus of group processes </li></ul><ul><li>A personality perspective </li></ul><ul><li>An act or behavior </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of the power relationship between leaders & followers </li></ul><ul><li>An instrument of goal achievement </li></ul>Some definitions view leadership as:
  4. 4. Leadership Defined <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Components Central to the Phenomenon of Leadership <ul><li>Is a process </li></ul><ul><li>Involves influence </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs within a group context </li></ul><ul><li>Involves goal attainment </li></ul>Leadership Leaders <ul><li>Are not above followers </li></ul><ul><li>Are not better than followers </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, an interactive relationship with followers </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEADERSHIP DESCRIBED <ul><li>Trait vs. Process Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership & Power </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership & Coercion </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership & Management </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trait vs. Process Leadership <ul><li>Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resides in select people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted to those with inborn talent </li></ul></ul>Trait definition of leadership: LEADER <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Other Traits </li></ul>Leadership= FOLLOWERS
  8. 8. Trait vs. Process Leadership <ul><li>Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed in leadership behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be learned </li></ul></ul>The process definition of Leadership: LEADER Leadership= (Interaction) FOLLOWERS
  9. 9. Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership <ul><li>Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerges over time through communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul>Assigned Emergent
  10. 10. Leadership & Power <ul><li>Power is the capacity or potential to influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two kinds of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul>Power Bases of Social Power French & Raven (1959) Power is a relational concern for both leaders and followers.
  11. 11. Leadership & Coercion <ul><li>The use of force to effect change </li></ul><ul><li>Influencing others to do something via manipulation of rewards and penalties in the work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Use of threats, punishments, & negative rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Jones </li></ul><ul><li>David Koresh </li></ul>Coercion Involves Examples of Coercive Leaders Power & restraint used to force followers to engage in extreme behavior
  12. 12. Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Management Activities Leadership Activities “ Produces order and consistency” <ul><li>Planning / Budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing / Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling / Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Solving </li></ul>“ Produces change and movement” <ul><li>Establishing direction </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning people </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating / Inspiring </li></ul>Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT both are essential for an organization to prosper.
  13. 13. Leadership & Management Zaleznik (1977) Managers Unidirectional Authority Leaders Multidirectional Influence <ul><li>Are reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer to work with </li></ul><ul><li>people on problem </li></ul><ul><li>solving </li></ul><ul><li>Low emotional </li></ul><ul><li>involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Are emotionally active </li></ul><ul><li>& involved </li></ul><ul><li>Shape ideas over </li></ul><ul><li>responding to them </li></ul><ul><li>Act to expand </li></ul><ul><li>available options </li></ul><ul><li>Change the way people </li></ul><ul><li>think about what is </li></ul><ul><li>possible </li></ul>