Current Trends In ID Through LOs


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Current Trends In ID Through LOs

  1. 1. -- elements of a new type of computer-based instruction (eg. charts, diagrams, video clips, images, webpages,etc.) that can be reused numbers of times in different learning contexts; -- digital entities sent over the internet that can be accessed by numbers of people at the same time; -- updated from time to time from new versions; learning object 2009 5 19
  2. 2. --fundamental: individual digital resource; visual; serving as an exhibit --combined-closed: small nos of digital resources combined; unrecoverable; serving as single purpose -combined-open: big nos of digital resources combined in real time; reused; -generative-presentation: combine network accessible objects; recreate presentations; reused; -generative-instructional : combine N evaluate student interaction with those combinations; reused; 5 different learning object types (D. Wiley) 2009 5 19
  3. 3. --instructional design(ID) theory -’prescriptive linking material’ : links ID to LO --learning object (LO) taxonomy includes 5 different learning objective types which have own features and share similarities too. 1. fundamental (jpg. image) 2.combined-closed (videoclip) 3. combined-open (dynamic webpage) 4. generative-presentation (user interface) 5. generative-instructional (Merrill’s transaction shells) 3 components of a successful learning object implementation( Wiley 2000) 2009 5 19
  4. 4. instructional design(ID)- generic process for analyzing human performance problems & determining appropriate solutions (incl who, what, when, where, why, and how of a learning program) to such problems; instructional designers are the persons who often predict future problems & likely organizational changes and project ways to prepare employees for the new situations (Pieters, 1997) concept of instructional design(ID) 2009 5 19
  5. 5. The entire process cannot be known in advance, so designers are required to do ‘just-in-time analysis’ (p15), synthesis, evaluation and change at every stage in the ID process. To fit with the demands of the Information Age, the designer will also need to become more aware of the broader social context within which the instruction takes place,and will need to consult broadly with shareholder groups so that a common vision of the final instruction and the means to develop it is arrived. Learners should become ‘user-designers’ (p18) with much of the design happening at the point of delivery ID theory in Information Age: ‘instruction needs to be customized rather than standardized’ (Reigeluth, 1997:45) 2009 5 19
  6. 6. there must be a link between skill and knowledge acquisition. ID focuses on both cognitive skills and multi-perspectival presentation of knowledge via multimedia authoring. it should provide easy access to information within an interactive environment which can be customized. without changing the overall structure, it is possible to make changes in reply to learner needs. it is also possible as a web structure it can grow and develop rapidly and easily, making learner control more feasible. ID theory in Information Age: ID for multimedia authroing (Gros et al.) 2009 5 19
  7. 7. ID theories scope/LOs sequence/LOs ET theory not the same size,combined large enough to teach be presented in order of increasing complexity Work model large enough to teach meaningful, real world performance sequenced to simulate real-world performance Domain theory instructional N assessments, large enough to teach and assess sequenced as per unidimensional expertise scales of difficulty 4C in two sizes:skill clusters(sml to large) N specific problems(large only) sequenced as per level and type: part to whole;simple to complex scope and sequence decisions in 4 different ID theories when designing LOs 2009 5 19
  8. 8. hardware: VCR N Computers with basic office software, CD/DVD player, zip drive, speaker, internet access, network drive access, connection to cable tv network, connections to a laptop software: standardize digital formats; create a single database of instructional media faculty: trained to learn how to digitize their media and prepare it for viewing over the network; media delivery & training 2009 5 19