Marketing Research Ch04

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Marketing Research Ch04

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Design, Exploratory Research, and Qualitative Data </li></ul></ul>© 2005 Thomson/South-Western
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Types of Research Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory Research </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Research Design <ul><li>Three traditional categories of research design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The choice of the most appropriate design depends largely on the objectives of the research and how much is known about the problem and these objectives. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Research Objectives and Research Design Research Objective Appropriate Design To gain background information, to define terms, to clarify Exploratory problems and develop hypotheses, to establish research priorities, to develop questions to be answered To describe and measure marketing phenomena at a point Descriptive in time To determine causality, test hypotheses, to make “if-then” Causal statements, to answer questions
  5. 5. Exploratory Research <ul><li>Develop initial ideas or insights </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direction for any further research needed </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To shed light on the nature of the situation and to identify any specific objectives or data needs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Qualitative Research <ul><li>Qualitative research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data that cannot be meaningfully quantified, that is, summarized in the form of numbers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qualitative Research (Cont’d) <ul><li>Qualitative Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically involves relatively few respondents or units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses non-structured questioning or observation techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Techniques are most appropriate in situations calling for exploratory research </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Relationship among Research Designs Descriptive Research Exploratory Research Causal Research
  9. 9. Selecting the Appropriate Research Type Is the research purpose specific and are data requirements clear? Analyze data/interpret findings Is there a need for further research Analyze data/interpret findings Make recommendations Conduct a suitable descriptive-research study Conduct exploratory research with these procedures: -Key informant technique -Focus group interviews -Secondary-data analysis -Case study method Design conclusive research Does the research purpose call for testing cause-and-effect relationships between variables? Conduct an appropriate experimental-research study Yes No No Yes No Yes
  10. 10. Types of Research Designs Exploratory Research Causal Research Descriptive Research <ul><li>Formulate problems more precisely </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Establish priorities for research </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate impractical ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Literature search </li></ul><ul><li>Experience survey </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of select cases </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Projective tests </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographies </li></ul><ul><li>Describe segment characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate proportion of people who behave in a certain way </li></ul><ul><li>Make specific predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study </li></ul><ul><li>True panel </li></ul><ul><li>Omnibus panel </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Provide evidence regarding causal relationships by means of: </li></ul><ul><li>Concomitant variation </li></ul><ul><li>Time order in which variables occur </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination other explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Field experiment </li></ul>Uses Types
  11. 11. Basic Types of Exploratory Research <ul><li>Literature search </li></ul><ul><li>Experience survey (Key Informant Survey). </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of select cases (Benchmarking) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Standard Qualitative Marketing Research Methods <ul><li>Methods of Qualitative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Projective tests (techniques) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storey telling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observation Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnographies </li></ul>
  13. 13. Focus Group Interviews <ul><li>8 to 12 individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Moderator (a well-trained researcher) </li></ul><ul><li>Informal discussion about research topic </li></ul>individuals moderator discussion
  14. 14. Group Composition <ul><li>Generally, focus groups conducted by marketing research practitioners involve between 6 and 12 participants </li></ul><ul><li>To be effective, a focus group must be as homogeneous as possible with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics </li></ul>
  15. 15. Moderator Tasks <ul><li>Guide discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure key aspects of the topic that are discusses </li></ul><ul><li>Observe interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Record dialogue and reactions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Desirable Focus Group Moderator Skills <ul><li>Kind but firm </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive </li></ul><ul><li>Involved </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conducting Focus Groups <ul><li>Focus group sessions typically last 1 1/2 to 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group interviews are often recorded: audio tapes or videotapes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Advantages of Focus Groups <ul><li>Richness of Data </li></ul><ul><li>Versatility </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Study Special Respondents </li></ul>
  19. 19. Disadvantages of Focus Groups <ul><li>Lack of Generalizability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results cannot be viewed as conclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for Misuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when managers yield to a temptation to generalize a few key remarks made by participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a cost-per-respondent basis, focus groups are extremely expensive </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Impact of Technology on Focus Groups <ul><li>Electronic Group Interviewing (EGI) </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Online Focus Groups </li></ul>
  21. 21. What Motivates Focus Group Participants
  22. 22. In-Depth Interviews <ul><li>WHEN USE: </li></ul><ul><li>SENSITIVE TOPICS </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Social Significance </li></ul><ul><li>“ THICK” DESCRIPTION OF BEHAVIOR </li></ul>
  23. 23. Which One to Choose? – In-Depth Interview or Focus Group
  24. 24. Focus Groups and Depth Interviews <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Probing </li></ul><ul><li>Richness of data </li></ul><ul><li>Gets at the “Why” of customers’ behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Generates ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies other project results </li></ul>Focus Groups <ul><li>Group dynamics, expect more creative </li></ul><ul><li>Some probing </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Ready industry </li></ul>Interviews <ul><li>Not influenced by others </li></ul><ul><li>Max probing, great depth </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Candid, sensitive topics </li></ul>
  25. 25. Projective Techniques <ul><li>“ A man is least himself when he talks in his own person; when he is given a mask he will tell the truth.” — Oscar Wilde </li></ul>
  26. 26. Projective Techniques <ul><li>Project beliefs or feelings onto a third party , to an inanimate object , or to a task situation . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Projective Techniques – Common Features <ul><li>A fairly ambiguous stimulus is presented to respondents in reacting to or describing the stimulus, the respondents will indirectly reveal their own inner feelings </li></ul>
  28. 28. Word Association Test <ul><li>A list of words, both relevant and irrelevant, used to understand people’s feelings towards different words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to examine the effectiveness of brand names, new products and services, and key advertising words </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Sentence Completion Test <ul><li>Respondents are asked to finish a set of incomplete sentences, often related or neutral to the topic of interest </li></ul><ul><li>To uncover feelings about “Buying American” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American automobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictions on imports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every U.S. citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign-made products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment in the U.S </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>“ I think the Nike ads that say, ‘Just do it’ are...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think Nike...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When I feel a real need to treat myself, I...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If it’s lunchtime, and I have a choice between McDonald’s, Burger King, and Wendy’s, I’ll choose ____ because...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ My favorite restaurant is ____ because...” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Thematic Apperception Test “Story Telling” <ul><li>Respondents are asked to write a story about one or a series of picture(s) they are shown for a short period of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially useful when dealing with special groups, such as children </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Research Realities 3: Customers Drawing Pictures for a Study Sponsored by a Large Florist Retail Chain* <ul><li>Interviewee #1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woman, 30-39 years old. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe yourself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am a quiet person, I keep mostly to myself and keep out of trouble that way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When do you buy flowers?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love flowers because they beautify the surroundings. They give me a special calm feeling of enjoyment. I give flowers to let someone know you are thinking about them . </li></ul></ul>Her drawing: <ul><li>Describe a dream involving flowers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I would send flowers to the ladies at work with a note attached and they would all start crying at one time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are flowers and funerals related?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the funerals I’ve been to have flowers. I guess when you die, you will be in paradise and paradise is full of flowers . </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Interviewee #2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woman, 20-29 years old. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Husband sends her flowers because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I am sweet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three words associated to flowers?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I love you . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compared to other gifts, flowers are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmest, most romantic, highest class, sexiest, most fun. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flowers remind me of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Love! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe a dream involving flowers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone gets married, they are happy and I am pleased for them and I send flowers to congratulate them. Everyone likes it and they live happily ever after . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are flowers and funerals related?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m opposed to the idea of flowers at funeral. Flowers at funeral are sad. The tradition of sending flowers to a funeral may have come about in order to cover the smell of the body. </li></ul></ul>Her drawing: Research Realities 3 continued
  34. 34. <ul><li>Interviewee #3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man, 40-49 years old. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describes himself as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… a loving and generous man. He celebrates all occasions with lavish and often costly gifts. He is enthusiastic about giving flowers and says they make him think about happiness and warmth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He also says: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The main reason to send flowers is to apologize for having a fight. They lift the spirits, women would be happy about the flowers . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe a dream involving flowers: : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I had a dream that I send some flowers and as the person bent down to smell the flowers, a thorn cut her lips. Even though she was bleeding she called to thank me for sending her the lovely roses. </li></ul></ul>His drawing: *A million Thank You’s to Sidney Levy for sharing these stories and pictures. Research Realities 3 continued
  35. 35. Observation <ul><li>Human or mechanical observation of what subjects actually do in a particular situation </li></ul><ul><li>Record information as events occur or compile evidence of past events </li></ul><ul><li>Assesses behavior which can be translated into new products or improvements of current products </li></ul>
  36. 36. What can be observed?
  37. 37. Observational Study on Cereal Purchases Interactions Parent and Child CHILD INITIATES PARENT INITIATES REQUESTS CEREAL DEMANDS CEREAL INVITES SELECTION DIRECTS SELECTION PARENT AGREES PARENT SUGGEST OTHER PARENT REJECTS OUTRIGHT PARENT YIELDS PARENT REJECTS OUTRIGHT PARENT SUGGESTS OTHER CHILD SELECTS CHILD DECLINES CHILD AGREES PARENT DECLINES CHILD SUGGESTS OTHER PARENT AGREES PARENT DENIES PARENT AGREES PARENT DENIES SOURCE: Atkin
  38. 38. Observational Study on Cereal Purchases Interactions Parent and Child CHILD INITIATES PARENT INITIATES REQUESTS CEREAL - 20% DEMANDS CEREAL - 46% INVITES SELECTION- 23% DIRECTS SELECTION- 11% PARENT AGREES - 12% PARENT SUGGEST OTHER- 2% PARENT REJECTS OUTRIGHT - 6% PARENT YIELDS - 30% PARENT REJECTS OUTRIGHT - 12% PARENT SUGGESTS OTHER - 4% CHILD SELECTS - 21% CHILD DECLINES - 2% CHILD AGREES - 7% PARENT DECLINES - 2% CHILD SUGGESTS OTHER - 2% PARENT AGREES - 19% PARENT DENIES - 2% PARENT AGREES - 1% PARENT DENIES - 1% SOURCE: Atkin (66%) (34%)
  39. 39. Ethnographies Participant Observation <ul><li>A combination of observations and interviews, in which the researcher is impeded in the natural setting. </li></ul><ul><li>An interaction with other participants in the setting form the bases of these qualitative studies. </li></ul>

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