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Perfect Passive Participles


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Perfect Passive Participles

  1. 1. Perfect Passive Participles An adjective made from a verb
  2. 2. P.P.P. <ul><li>Perfect : it has already happened </li></ul><ul><li>Passive : action has happened to the noun </li></ul><ul><li>Participle : an adjective made from a verb </li></ul>
  3. 3. The 4 th principal part of a verb <ul><li>Portatus – carried, having been carried </li></ul><ul><li>Doctus – taught, having been taught </li></ul><ul><li>Missus – sent, having been sent </li></ul><ul><li>Captus – seized, having been seized </li></ul><ul><li>Auditus – heard, having been heard </li></ul>
  4. 4. In a sentence… <ul><li>It acts like any other adjective, describing a noun or as a substantive </li></ul><ul><li>Agrees in case, number, and gender with any noun in the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>BUT it can be accompanied by prepositional phrases between the noun and participle </li></ul>
  5. 5. Translate: <ul><li>Mater liberorum amissorum ad casam properabat. </li></ul><ul><li>Mater liberorum in silv ā amissorum ad casam properabat. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ablative of agent <ul><li>a / ab in a prepositional phrase with anything passive takes on the meaning by </li></ul><ul><li>This use of ab with a passive is called ablative of agent </li></ul><ul><li>It expresses the doer/agent of the action </li></ul>
  7. 7. Translate: <ul><li>Rex captus servos liberavit. </li></ul><ul><li>Rex a barbaris captus servos liberavit. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Translate: <ul><li>Verba facta audietis. </li></ul><ul><li>Verba a magistr ā facta audietis. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Translate: <ul><li>In vi ā munitā ambulabimus. </li></ul><ul><li>In vi ā a Romanis munitā ambulabimus. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Participles <ul><li>There are also present active participles: </li></ul><ul><li>In English: the jumping frog </li></ul><ul><li>In Latin these are made by adding –ns (genitive: -ntis) to the present stem of verbs </li></ul><ul><li>They are declined as 3 rd declension adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Rana ambulans equum currentem vidit. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Participles <ul><li>There are also future active participles: </li></ul><ul><li>In English: the frog about to jump </li></ul><ul><li>In Latin these are made by adding –ur- before the ending of the p.p.p. </li></ul><ul><li>They are declined as 1 st -2 nd declension adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Rana ambulaturus equum cursurum vidit. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Mystery <ul><li>Have you noticed that some verbs list the future active participle instead of the p.p.p. as the 4 th principal part? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do some verbs not have a p.p.p ? </li></ul><ul><li>Extra credit bonus points if you email me the answer. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Translating participles in clauses <ul><li>Instead of translating a p.p.p. as having been carried you can turn that one word into a whole clause using one of the following words to start it: </li></ul><ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>Although </li></ul>
  14. 14. Aspect of time <ul><li>When participles are translated as clauses, they take on aspect of time. </li></ul><ul><li>They only exist relative to the tense of the main verb in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Past participles have happened before the main verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Present participles happen at the same time as the main verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Future participles will happen after the main verb. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Translate: <ul><li>Rex a barbaris captus servos liberavit. </li></ul><ul><li>The king, after he had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The king, since he had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The king, although he had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The king, who had been captured by the foreigners , freed the slaves. </li></ul>