Saraswat History


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Chitrapur saraswats roots and ancestry. -Dr Ramdas Thaggarse.

Published in: Spiritual, Travel

Saraswat History

  3. 3. PURPOSE <ul><li>To be aware of the historical genesis, spiritual and cultural heritage of a great civilization that we have inherited over the years. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite repeated migrations, Saraswats still maintain their identity, traditions and customs . These need to be strengthened, as our community is now scattered all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestors, built temples wherever they migrated, Goa or Karnataka. Their sole objective was to inspire faith and devotion in God and to encourage satsangs in the community . Later on, in urban areas they built cooperative societies to fulfill this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>To know the political, social and religious circumstances that led to the formation of our Shri Chitrapur Math 300 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>To cherish the great heritage of Guru Parampara and the Margadarshan given by each of our Gurus inspiring us to have inherent faith in God, charity towards all and malice towards none and to work always, with unity for the betterment of the community and the society at large. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to cast a glance at the common heritage of all main line of the Goa Saraswats. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CONTENTS <ul><li>Mool Sthan: 7000 – 300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswat Settlements in Gomant: 300 BCE onwards </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswat Settlements in Kanara: 3-phases </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. MOOL STHAN: 7000 – 300 BCE <ul><li>Kashmir – Shivalik Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswati River: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of geological and climatic events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vedic Saraswati map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saraswati – Sindhu civilization map </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1. SEQUENCE OF EVENTS <ul><li>Saraswat means: Our ancestors lived by the sacred river Saraswati. </li></ul><ul><li>On the banks of this river, the Sages of yore got enlightened with the knowledge of Vedas. </li></ul>Onset of aridity: Impact of neotectonism in NW India due to disruption of the Saraswati / Ghaggar / Hakra / Nara course, decline of Vedic civilization and rise of Indus valley civilization (Mohenjo-Daro). 5000 - 3000 Active Vedic civilization with Saraswati as a major river. Aryan inhabitants at Shivalik mountains get acquainted with River Saraswati. Break up of Himalayan Glaciers and formation of Saraswati, Shatadru, Drishadvati in NW India. 7000 - 5000 Saraswat period of migration to Gomant in 3rd century BCE. Flourishing empires such as Mauryan, Gupta, Ashoka, spread of Buddhism and Jainism. 1000 - 0 12-year famine causes early migration: Division among Aryans from different professions Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Pancha Gaud and Pancha Dravid concept. 3000 - 1000
  7. 7. 1. VEDIC SARASWATI <ul><li>Vedas existed for atleast 9,000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Sage Saraswat preserved the knowledge of Vedas and Vedangas during 12 years famine. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1. SARASWATI – SINDHU CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Excavation sites: Homogeneity of monuments & artifacts among: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harappa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mohenjo-Daro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kalibangan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banawali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kunal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dholavira </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lothal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discovery of Yajnakundas: Circumstantial evidence that Saraswati River civilization belonged to Vedic period </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. MIGRATION LOCATIONS <ul><li>Onset of aridity & 12-year famine causes early migrations to the following locations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancha Gouda regions: Locations north of Vindhyas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saraswat : Present Punjab & Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kanyakubja : Present parts of Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gauda : Present eastern parts of Eastern Uttar Pradesh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mithila : Present Northern Bihar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utkala : Present Orissa </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancha Dravida regions: Locations south of Vindhyas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telanga: Present Andhra Pradesh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dravida: Present Tamil Nadu & Kerala </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karnataka </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maharashtraka: Present Maharashtra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gurjara: Present Gujarat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2. SARASWAT SETTLEMENTS IN GOMANT: 300 BCE ONWARDS <ul><li>Settlement locations in Gomant </li></ul><ul><li>Development of 8 Agrahar villages </li></ul><ul><li>Fission & fusion of families after various stages of migrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim invasion – destruction of temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vijayanagar rule – rebuilding of temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurrence of Muslim invasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portuguese invasions and persecutions </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2. SETTLEMENT LOCATIONS IN GOMANT <ul><li>Saraswat settlements appears to have taken place: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd century BCE from Trihotra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 th century CE from Kanyakubja and later from Marudesha </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They belonged to 10 Gotras: Bharadwaj, Kaushika, Vatsa, Kaundinya, Kashyapa, Jamadagni, Vishwamitra, Gautama and Atri. </li></ul><ul><li>Original 66 families settled in 8 Agrahar villages. Later some families spread to Tiswadi. </li></ul>1 2 4 3 5 6
  12. 12. 2. DEVELOPMENT OF 8 AGRAHAR VILLAGES <ul><li>Creation of Grama Samsthas: Autonomous bodies, self-sufficient village granaries, powerful and progressive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up co-operatives for the need of members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>500 C.E.: Built most majestic Kuldev temples and its Gaunkars are the Mahajans of the temples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kushasthali, Mangesh temple: Gaunkars number 24, i.e., 14 Vangads of Kaundinya and 10 of Vatsa Gotra. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keloshi, Shantadurga temple: 12 of Kaushik and later, 1 of Vatsa and 1 of Bharadwaj. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temples: Places of worship, Pathashalas for Vedas, Mantrajagars, Shastras, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a big library with handwritten Granthas. </li></ul><ul><li>Centre of traditional festivals, kirtans, natakas and other arts. </li></ul><ul><li>800 C.E.: Formation of Gaudapadacharya Math at Kushasthali. Adwaita philosophy followed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2. FISSION & FUSION OF FAMILIES AFTER VARIOUS STAGES OF MIGRATION <ul><li>1 st Fission caused as a result of occupation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some GSB families served as priests, others: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigotries of 2 nd batch served as teachers, clerks, accountants & district officers. They had liberal views on social, religion and politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shastikars of 1 st batch took to trade & commerce as hereditary profession. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fusion : 1100 C.E. – Inclusion of Mahajans of Vatsa Varde / Valaulikars and Bharadwaj Gotra Pai Panandikars within Keloshikars of Shantadurga. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Fission (temporary) : 1500 C.E - Segregation between Shenvis and Shasthikars when latter became followers of Madhva Vaishanava Maths. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion : Iconography of GSB family deities remain uncompromisingly Shaivaite in form to this day. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 2. FISSIONS & FUSION OF FAMILIES (CONT’D) <ul><li>1357 C.E.: Muslim invasion of Gomantak. Destruction of temples causing havoc. </li></ul><ul><li>1366 – 1469 C.E.: Vijayanagar rule - Temples rebuilt with full religious activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saraswats found scope for their talents in Vijayanagar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goa Saraswat envoys, Vasant Madhav and Mainashenai Wagle, were able to persuade Harihara II to send expedition to conquer Muslims in Goa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1366 C.E.: Madhav Mantri took Goa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1469 – 1498 C.E.: Bahamini Sultan’s raids in Goa. </li></ul><ul><li>1498 – 1510 C.E. – Adil Shah Rule: Shifting of Laxmi Narayan temple from Nagve to Ankola (1500 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goa administered by Yusuf Gurgi, a Turk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1510 C.E.: Timmappa Nayak, Naval Chief of Vijayanagar and Mhala Pai sought intervention of Portuguese to overthrow Adil Shah rule. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2. PORTUGUESE INVASIONS & PERSECUTIONS <ul><li>Velha Conquistas: Conquered island of Tiswadi in 1510 C.E., Bardesh and Sasashti in 1543 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>1510 – 1540 C.E.: Conversion mainly through persuasion and material incentives. </li></ul><ul><li>1541 C.E.: On orders of King Joao III, Hindu temples in Tiswadi destroyed, temple lands confiscated and allocated to church. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saraswats move to neighbouring areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1543 – 1546 C.E.: King Joao III bans preparation / worship of idols in temples and private houses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindus forbidden to practice religious rites and ceremonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1548 C.E.: Bishop Joao de Albuquerque collects all scared Hindu books and burns them. Hindu priests imprisoned. </li></ul><ul><li>1557 C.E.: Non-Catholics excluded from public offices. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 2. PORTUGUESE PERSECUTIONS (CONT’D) <ul><li>1560 C.E.: Tribunal of inquisition established. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goan inquisition most severe and cruel of all Portuguese territories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Se Cathedral: Condemned Hindus publicly burned during ceremonies called Auto da Fé (Act of Faith). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1563 C.E.: All Hindus ordered to quit old conquest area within a month’s time. </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of 160 temples – Tiswadi (1541 C.E.), 240 – Sasashti (1560 – 1567 C.E.), 175 – Bardesh (1573 C.E.). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a single temple was spared in old conquest areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 12,000 families, mostly Saraswats flee: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To neighbouring territories of Bhonsle and Sonde kings with their deities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via sea to coastal areas of Kanara to Calicut and north Kudal, Sawantwadi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity of inquisition lessens due to decline of Portuguese empire. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 1 1
  18. 18. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 2 2
  19. 19. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 3 3
  20. 20. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 4 4
  21. 21. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 5 5
  22. 22. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 6 6
  23. 23. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 7 7
  24. 24. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 8 8- Ankola
  25. 25. 2. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES 15 15- Shirali
  26. 26. RELOCATION OF TEMPLES (CONT’D) Ankola, N. Kanara (1500 AD, due to Muslim atrocities) --- Nagao, Salcette Laxminarayan Mahamaya 8 --- Veling, Ponda Sancoale, Mormugao Laxmi Narsimha 7 --- Borim, Ponda Benaulim, Salcette Navdurga 6 1 st Verna Church, on site of Santeri Temple. Mardol, Ponda Verna, Salcete Mhalasa 5 --- Bandode, Ponda Colva, Salcette Mahalaxmi 4 (c) --- -do- Nagesh 4 (b) --- DID NOT SHIFT! Bandode, Ponda Mahalakshmi 4 (a) Church of Cortalim (1566) Priol, Ponda (1560) -do- Mangesh 3 --- Kavle, Ponda (1630) Kushasthali (Cortalim) Goudapadacharya (Kavle) Math 2 --- Kavle, Ponda (1560) Keloshi, Mormugao Shantadurga 1 Church (in its place) To (present site) From (old site) Temple Sr. No.
  28. 28. <ul><li>New conquest areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1781 C.E.: Bicholim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1788 C.E.: Pednem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1790 C.E.: Sattari from Ranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1791 C.E.: Sanguem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancona </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quepem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ponda </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These 7 talukas served as shelter for Hindus of old conquests. </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese empire weakened due to loss of territories to British, Dutch and Marathas – Halt to coercive conversions and temple destruction. </li></ul>2. PORTUGUESE INVASIONS (CONT’D) Bhonsle Kings Sonde Kings Once again the kuladeva temples and relocated Kavle math lay under Portuguese rule, but Maratha military strength and Hindu influence in Goa itself were sufficient to prevent any recurrence of Portuguese persecution.
  29. 29. 3. MIGRATION TO KANARA <ul><li>Migration in 3 phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exodus to escape from religious persecutions by Muslim rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exodus to escape from Portuguese organized persecution & mass conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kanara settlements and developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social occupations at Nagar Kingdom occupied coastal areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circumstances for active search for a Guru: Social, religious, Political </li></ul>
  30. 30. 3-PHASE MIGRATION <ul><li>Gradual Migration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for better pastures – followed Sashtikars who went for trade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1300 C.E.: Nadkarni’s to Bankikodla by land via Kankon and Ankola. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Century later: Kulkarni’s and Balwalli’s followed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exodus to escape from Muslim persecution (1314-1367 and 1469-1510 C.E.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left by sea to ports of Kanara. Later branch families moved to hinterland villages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1500 C.E.: Kuldev temple shifted from Nagve to Ankola. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temples built: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1550 C.E.: Aldangadi, Ganapati temple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1560 C.E.: Bailur, Laxmi Narayan temple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1560 C.E.: Vokkatur, Ananteshwar temple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1685 C.E.: Manke, Janardhan temple and Bhatkal, Laxmi Narayan temple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exodus to escape from Portuguese persecution (1560 C.E.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Goa to Kanara ports upto Ullal. Families shifted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ullal (Vatsa Gotra): 8 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Koppi: 11 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harite: 11 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ubhaya (Kaundinya): 10 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kaikini: 10 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kabad: 10 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nagarkatte: 10 th generation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. 3. KANARA SETTLEMENTS & DEVELOPMENTS (1400-1700 C.E.) <ul><li>Exodus to escape from Portuguese persecution and mass conversion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost touch of Moola Dharmapeetha and priestly families: In order to preserve their deities, religious beliefs and Saraswat identities gave up their lands, wealth and even their lives. Their unswerving faith in god gave them courage to start their lives afresh in new lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But managed to carry with us the heritage of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High reverence to Kuladevatas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teachings of Adhvait philosophy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanskars. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oldest settlements were along coastal villages, towns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch families moved to other villages, usually hinterland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surnames changed as a result. The village name prefixed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaidya Wangad migrated to Manki. Came to be known as Mankikars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Branches of Mankikars moved to hinterlands of Talmaki, Chittar, Samrode, Yennamadi, Gokarn, Shirali, Shirur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mankikars settled in Gokarn, for e.g., Gokarnad Anantaya Shanboa came to be known as Gokarn. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old surnames were mostly forgotten </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 3. KANARA SETTLEMENTS – KEY PLACES OF RESIDENCE Keladi rule: 1499–1763 Shifted capital to Ikkeri 1514 Shivappa Nayak: 1645-1660 Our ancestors contacts commenced with new capital Bednur in 1645 C.E 1608 Jain and other local chiefs of Kanara put down.
  34. 34. 3. SOME CHITRAPUR WANGADS AT GOA PANANDIKAR Gangolli, Kallianpur, Benegal, Betrabet 7 VAIDYA Koppikar, Nagarkatti, Shirali, Mankekar 6 VARDE Shashittal, Kombrabail, Balvalli 5 PALEKAR Andar, Kalbag, Mullarpattan 4 DALVI Gulvadi, Trikanad, Cherkal 3 RAJADHYAKSHA Nadkarni, Gokarn 2 WAGLE Chikarmane, Tombat, Mundkur, Kumta, Kandlur, Nilekani, Talgeri, Ugran 1 Wangad name at Goa Chitrapur Saraswat Families Sr.No.
  35. 35. 3. KANARA SETTLEMENTS – SOCIAL OCCUPATIONS <ul><li>Carried the heritage of Grama Samstha developed in Goa to Kanara </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated on 2 main occupations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition of lands (Land lords in villages). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service in revenue administration under ruling kings and small local chiefs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At that time, there was hardly a place of ‘Shanbhogues’ (accountants), not held by Saraswats. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular saying : Rulers may come and go but Saraswat Shanbhogues go on forever. </li></ul><ul><li>No Goan style economic village communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive rice fields, coconut plantations held by families, not by villages. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. 3. NAGAR KINGDOM: SOCIAL OCCUPATIONS <ul><li>Subsequent occupation of Kanara coastal villages by Nagar Kingdom improved Saraswat standing in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestors served Nagar kings both at the capital and elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Saraswat surnames bear testimony of our service to Nagar kings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike previous surnames based on land settlement, surnames were adopted based on occupation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records of grants made by Nagar kings to Saraswat temples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Janardhan of Mankikars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhadrambika of Chickermanekars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dattatreya and Gopalkrishna of Hemmadikars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records of grants of land in 1739 C.E. to Bhandikere Math, Gokarn </li></ul>
  37. 37. 3. ADOPTED SURNAMES PRIMARILY OCCUPATION BASED Sheristedar - King of Coorg Bellare 4 Karnik - Chief of Bekal Bagde 3 Revenue collector - One of Kanara chiefs Padbidri 2 Accountants - Prince of Vithal Dodda and Sanna Kavlige 1 At service of local chiefs Supplier of grams to the king's stables Kadle 9 Accountant Labadaya 8 Headman of armed police Gurkar 7 Toll gatekeeper Nagarkatte 6 Veterinary surgeon to the King's stables Pandit 5 Chamberlain of the white palace Bilemahal 4 Chamberlain of the palace of the heir apparent Chickermane 3 Royal steward Ugran 2 Secretary of the royal household Manevarte 1 Nagar Kingdom Occupation Surname Sr. No.
  38. 38. 3. KANARA SETTLEMENTS: RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Our ancestors built a number of temples in every village, installed idols of different deities and arranged for ceremonial worship. </li></ul><ul><li>These activities were conducted to inspire faith and devotion in the core minds of succeeding generations. </li></ul><ul><li>These temples were also centers for cultural and religious activities of fine arts like sculpting, music, painting, harikirtans etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>In most cases, lands were endowed to temples for their upkeep and maintenance. </li></ul><ul><li>These temples flourished for a couple of decades till younger generations migrated to cities. </li></ul><ul><li>The temples remain as standing monuments to devotion and faith for the benefit of the community. </li></ul>
  39. 39. 3. SARASWAT TEMPLES IN KANARA - EXAMPLES 14 th Century, old temple Bangra Manjeshwar Vidya Vithal 1724 C.E. Manki Madi Bhadrambikeshwar 17th Century Kaikini Shivamunishwar Gokarnkars held the post of Manegars of Mahableshwar temple, Gokarn for generations and Gokarna Anantaya rendered service in rebuilding it in about 1700 C.E. 1744 C.E Mangalore Umamaheshwar 1700 C.E. Buddukuli Shirali Durgaparameshwari 17th Century Shirali Gurunatheshwar Gopalkrishna 1650 C.E (approx) Mallapur Avadi 17th Century Hemmadi Dattatreya and Venkatramana 17th Century Hattiangadi Shankar Narayana and Gopalkrishna 17th Century Chandavar Mooru Devar Early 17th Century Shirali (Kadle Math) Shivalingeshwar 1685 C.E. Bhatkal Laxminarayan 1685 C.E. Manki Janardhan 1560 C.E. Shifted to Vithal 1660 C.E. Vokketur Ananteshwar 1560 C.E. Bailur Laxminarayan 1550 C.E. Aldangadi Ganapati 1350 C.E. Bankikodla Bankanatheshwar 14th Century Mallapur Ganapati Year Place Temple
  40. 40. 3. KANARA – RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES (CONT’D) <ul><li>Saints: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Ramavallabhdas : Came to Kanara approx. 1650 C.E. and left his spiritual mark on our community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Krishna Jayanti Vrata initiated by him established 4 centers; Avadi Math Mallapur, Haridas Math Shirali, Hemapur Math Hemmadi, Gosavi Math Hattiangadi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 17 th century: Saint Chidananda and his successors, poets and vedanties, made Bailur centre of spiritual influence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Shivamunishwar (Kaikini family): compiled Marathi version of Devi Mahatmya. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poet Saint Bhatkal Appaya (Nadghar family): composed extempore songs characterized by great beauty and insight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nagar King gave him the title of Varakavi. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Avadibai (Ubaykar family) kept tradition of Bhagwat Dharma in our community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Jognani of Hemmad tradition had great poetic gifts. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. 3. SEARCH FOR A GURU <ul><li>Before 1708 C.E.: Saraswat cluster, known as Keloshi-Kushashthalikars, belonged to Shenvipaiki and to a greater identity of Gauda Saraswats. </li></ul><ul><li>Saraswats had lost links with Moola Dharmapeetha in Goa post migration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1560 C.E.: Portuguese completely destroyed Gaudapadacharya Maths, Kuldev temples at Kushasthali, Goa. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1630 C.E.: Although Dharmapeetha was relocated at Kavle, Kavle Math Swamijis lived out of Kavle due to series of Portuguese-Maratha battles. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestors required Vedic pathashalas and priestly families of our own who perform Dharmic rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure from Dwaita Maths to join them. </li></ul><ul><li>Our ancestors needed a Dharmapeetha for spiritual way of thought and act. They needed their own Jati Swami in areas where they resided. </li></ul><ul><li>Envy of others as Saraswats held high positions at Nagar – Locals hinted that Saraswats were rootless people, unconnected by any Math. </li></ul><ul><li>Nagar King expected the Saraswat community to find an everlasting solution to eliminate dissension and gave a time limit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time limit acted as a trigger for earlier efforts for an active search of our First Guru, due to social and religious pressures. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. 3. GURU – SEQUENCE OF EVENTS 1757 Ashwin Sh 6 Ishwar Shake 1679 at Shirali Punyatithikal and Samadhisthan of second Guru 10 1739 Margashir Sh 10 of Siddharti Shake 1661 Deed of gift by Kaladi Basappa Nayaka for building Math at Bhandikere, Gokarn 9 1735 Phalguna Sh 5 Anand Shake 1656 Further undertaking given to the second Guru about rules and regulations 8 1723 Pushya Sh 12 Shobhakriti Shake 1644 Promise made by our people to our Swami about annual vantiga and construction of Math at Gokarn signed by 50 people 7 1722 Ashvij Sh 10 Shabhakriti Shake 1644 Site for Umamaheshwar Temple granted to Anantaya from God Mahableshwar of Gokarn through managers 6 1720 Saturday, Chaitra Shudha 15 Sharvari Shake 1642 Shisya Sweekar of second Guru 5 1720 Chaitra Shudha 5 Sharvani Shake 1642 Undertaking given to Krishnayya Shanbag 4 Believed to be 1709 - 1720 Undertaking given to first guru 3 1709 Ashwini Shudha Navami Virodhi Shake 1631 Visit to Shringeri and recognition by the Shankaracharya 2 Feb 1709 Sunday, Magh Sh 7 Sarvadhare Shake 1630 Arrival at Kotiteertha of our first Guru 1 Common Era (C.E.) Date as per Hindu Calendar Event Sr. No. Important Events