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Meeting Strategies To Abolish Domestic Violence In Cultural

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Domestic Violence study carried-out in Chile fron an anthropological point of view that shows the importance of the inter-gender relationships in the prevention of the phenomena, Media campaigns of D.V. to promote intra-gender relationships as a means of protection.

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Meeting Strategies To Abolish Domestic Violence In Cultural

  1. 1. Meeting Strategies to Abolish Domestic Violence in Cultural Context of Poverty and Christian Values Policy Dialogue on Gender Equality 2002 Roxana Toro Barrientos Social Anthropologist CISA Research Center of Social-Applied Sciences Chile
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>The phenomena and measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>The qualitative results of the first Anthropological Research made in Chile. </li></ul><ul><li>The gender analysis of the results. </li></ul><ul><li>The proposal for governmental prevention programs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. General Historical Background <ul><li>Domestic violence seems to be the most prevalent type of violence perpetrated against women in Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>High rates of violence between the spouses in many countries of Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>According to a research carried out in 1992 by The Pan-American Health Office in Chile, one of every four women is physically mistreated in her home. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Measurements Taken to eliminate the social flea <ul><li>The promulgation of the Domestic Violence Law in 1992 in Chile. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Program of Prevention based on the Ecological Model of J. Corsi (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Ratification of the Inter-American Convention Against Violence to Women (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The support to the victims through counseling and the opening of governmental shelters in 2001. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Present Situation <ul><li>The demand for support increased (1990-1998: the number multiplied by 12). </li></ul><ul><li>A hidden situation of violence against women has been raised in public speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of complaints from the women and many difficulties in the continuity of the treatments due to the relapsing of the cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Need of qualitative research for better understanding of the issue. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Results of an Anthropological Research conducted by the NGO CISA (Research Center for Applied Social Sciences) in 1999 and 2000 in Chile. <ul><li>General Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To describe and analyze the gender factors involved in the process of the violence between spouses’ origin, maintenance and resolution, in order to propose public policies to prevent the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To collect more information regarding the variables involved in the relapsing of the cases related to gender . </li></ul>
  7. 7. - Sample: 52 cases of women in poverty situation. <ul><li>- Theoretical Approach: Social- Symbolic analysis of gender. </li></ul><ul><li>- Methodology : qualitative. </li></ul><ul><li>- Data recollection and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques : Life histories, speeches analysis and C. Geertz cultural analysis. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theoretical Framework: Key concepts <ul><li>Violence Between the Spouses </li></ul><ul><li> “ Any conduct of abuse or aggression of a reiterative character present in the couple relationship either, physical, psychological, sexual or economic.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theoretical Framework (2) Culture “ A n organized system of knowledge and beliefs by means of which the human beings, structure our experience and perceptions, formulate acts and choose the action alternatives ” .
  10. 10. MAIN RESULTS (1) vison of the world <ul><li>Presence of structural and face to face violence in the lives cycles, which produce particular set of ideological patterns in the “vision of the world” of the women, where social reality is outside of control for the individual and the family foundation becomes the main value in a life situation of extreme social and psychological vulnerability. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Main results (2) <ul><li>Risk factors in the socialization process </li></ul><ul><li>2. The absence or inadequacy of the mother figure. </li></ul><ul><li>(95% of 52 cases) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Experiences of physical, sexual, psychological, economic and gender violence in their childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>( 100% of the cases present different types of violence, 75% sexual violence) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Violence between the spouses in the parents relationship. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Main results (3) gender factors & S.P. <ul><li>5. Gender socialization process based on traditional and rigid gender roles. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Gender identity developed from religious values of “Marian” or Marian identity (S. Montecino: 1994) represented by the virgin in the Christian religion. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Main Results (4) Social Interaction Process <ul><li>6. Precarious social bonds, especially in the establishment of the couple relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Conflictive relationship with the feminine figures. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Conflictive and overprotective behavior in the performance of the maternity role. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Acceptance of violent situations which are legitimatised due to the gender role. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Main Results (5) the resolution of the Violence Process <ul><li>The woman’s decision for a new couple relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>The women’s affiliation to new spaces of social interaction (religious or labor activities, and spaces of social interaction with other females ). </li></ul>
  15. 15. ORIGIN MAINTENANCE RESOLUTION Abs/ Inad. of the maternal figure Conflictive Relationship with the feminine figures Spaces of Social Interaction with other females Traditional Gender Role S.P. Marian Gender Identity Conflictive and overprotective behavior in the performance of the maternal role
  16. 16. Main Conclusion <ul><li>The results showed that there are many gender variables regarding the process of origin, maintenance and resolution of the violence processes, which focused mainly on the gender socialization process, the mother figure, and the intra-gender relationships, and inhibit the resolution of the V.P., and promote the acceptance of the violence by the women. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Proposals <ul><li>Policy of prevention must consider the intra-gender relationship as a factor of concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Target group of prevention programs must be girls who do not have a feminine model figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual educational programs must be gender-oriented. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Proposals (2) <ul><li>To strengthen sexual education and D.V. prevention measures for adolescents in the school system. </li></ul><ul><li>Media campaigns of D.V. to promote intra-gender relationships as a means of protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of communitarian female activities. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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