Ancient Roman Architecture


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Ancient Roman Architecture

  1. 1. By: Taylor Andress<br />Ancient Roman Architecture<br />
  2. 2. The ancient Roman style is said to be a reproductive form of the Greek and Etruscan architecture. <br />Together they are considered to be a body of classical architecture.<br />Although the Romans have borrowed much of the Greek style, they have used their own knowledge in construction to improve the arch and vault for the architectural community.<br />The Roman Style<br />
  3. 3. Some of the many achievements the Romans used in the nature of their architecture are the arch, dome, vault, column, and aqueduct.<br />These accomplishments were large steps that added to the understanding of architecture today.<br />By reaching these feats the Romans were able to create many impressive building and structures. <br />The Roman Style<br />
  4. 4. The Romans used many materials to create everything from masonry pastes to walls and flooring.<br />These are a few of the materials used:<br />Chalk <br />Sand<br />Pozzolanic concrete<br />Broken pottery<br />Pumice stone<br />Lime<br />Sandstone<br />Marble<br />Granite<br />Building materials and tools<br /><ul><li>Wood
  5. 5. Terracotta
  6. 6. Ceramics
  7. 7. Tin
  8. 8. Iron</li></li></ul><li>Similarly to today, the Romans used many different tools to survey the land and construct buildings.<br />These are a few of the tools that were use:<br />Dioptra<br />Leveling staff<br />Groma<br />Axes<br />Adze<br />Lathes<br />Saws <br />Planes <br />Flies<br />Calipers<br />Building materials and tools<br /><ul><li>Saw blades
  9. 9. Folding rule
  10. 10. Chisels
  11. 11. Gouges
  12. 12. Hammer
  13. 13. Square
  14. 14. trepan</li></li></ul><li>The Romans built there foundations out of compact subsoil and sometimes even rock.<br />The foundations of Roman buildings were often 2 to 3m thick.<br />Often when the ground was damp floor boards would be placed on short pillars allowing the ground beneath to dry out.<br />In important public buildings small clay pipes and vent were placed in the walls to form a sort of chimney.<br />Foundations<br />
  15. 15. In ancient Rome floors were normally constructed out of wooden structures and boards.<br />The floor boards were laid over cross beams that rested on supports from the surrounding walls.<br />For extra comfort wooden floors were often covered in straw and then covered over in mortar. When this is done the floors can even be tiled.<br />Roofs were made out of wooden trusses supported by the walls and covered in tiles.<br />Floors and roofs<br />
  16. 16. Constructing walls<br />In ancient Rome there were a series of techniques that could be used to create walls.<br />Opus reticulatum- a form of brickwork that consists of diamond shaped tufa blocks and applied with mortar.<br />Opus incertum-constructing technique that uses irregular shaped uncut rocks that are applied with mortar.<br />Opus mixtum- application of diamond shaped tufa blocks and bricks that are applied with mortar.<br />
  17. 17. The column was very popular in ancient Roman architecture.<br />It was mostly used for structural and at times decorative manners.<br />Columns were often constructed in sections and then stack on top of each other.<br />The basic column was made out of wood or stone and mortar, while more decorative ones were hand carved.<br />Columns<br /><br />
  18. 18. Arch<br />The arch was said to be invented by the Romans, however the arch has been around since prehistoric times.<br />Modified by the Romans, the arch during this times could support large amounts of weight.<br />The arch was used to provide extra structure for a building and was constructed out of brick, stone, or concrete.<br />
  19. 19. Constructed between 70-82 AD<br />Amphitheatre used for gladiator competitions and other public event. <br />Able to seat at most 87,000 people.<br />Created by masonry and cut stones.<br />Made out of travertine stone, mortar, bricks, and iron clamps.<br />Contains arches, columns, arcades, and podiums.<br />Roman Colosseum<br />
  20. 20. Thermae of Caracalla<br />Constructed between 212-216 AD.<br />Public bath house that later added a public library to its complex.<br />Covered approximately 33 acres; 750 feet long, 380 feet wide, 125 feet in height.<br />Capable of holding 1,600 people.<br />The Thermae of Caracalla was destroyed during the Gothic war demolishing the hydraulic installations, but the remains are a very popular tourist attraction today.<br />
  21. 21. The date in which the original Pantheon was constructed is unknown, but it was rebuilt in 126 AD.<br />Roman temple built to honor all of the gods.<br />Named for all of the statues placed around the building and its resemblance to the heavens.<br />This circular building is constructed with a grand porch, three rows of columns, and a dome with a centered oculus to the sky.<br />The Pantheons dome is still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world today.<br />Pantheon<br />
  22. 22. Roman mausoleum in Ravenna, Italy.<br />Constructed between 425-430 AD.<br />Originally created to be a mausoleum, the building is shaped like the Greek cross.<br />The mausoleum hold three sarcophagi containing the burnt remains of Galla Placidia, her brother and her husband.<br />This building contains a dome and the interior is covered in Byzantine mosaics.<br />Mausoleum of Galla Placidia<br />
  23. 23. “Ancient Roman architecture.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2010. January-February 2010. Web.<br />“Ancient Roman buildings.” Great Buildings. Artifice. Inc. 2009. January-February 2010. Web. <br /><br />“Ancient Roman architecture.” Crystalinks. Ellie Crystal. 2010. January- February 2010. Web.<br /><br />“Ancient Roman architecture.” Mariamilani. Giovanni Milani-Santarpia. N.d. January- February 2010. Web.<br /><br />“Images and building from ancient Roman architecture.” Yahoo Images. Yahoo! 2010. January- February 2010. Web.<br /><br />Cited Works<br />