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Introductory Chemistry Chapter 1 Power Point

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Power point slides for my Introductory Chemistry course, Spring 2007, corresponding to chapter 1 in the textbook.

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Introductory Chemistry Chapter 1 Power Point

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?
  2. 2. WHAT IS CHEMISTRY? <ul><li>Chemistry is the study of matter and the transformations it undergoes. </li></ul><ul><li>What is matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything that has mass and takes up space. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Chemistry is all around you. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air you breathe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food you digest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothes you wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbook you read </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemistry is often said to be the central science. </li></ul>
  4. 4. SCIENCE V.S. TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>How is science different from technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental investigation and exploration of natural phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursues knowledge for its own sake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not cause change in itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The practical application of scientific knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to change (for better or for worse) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SCIENCE V.S. TECHNOLOGY (Cont) <ul><li>Examples of science: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What causes the flu? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are atoms put together? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is genetic information stored and transmitted? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flu vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. SCIENTIFIC METHOD <ul><li>Step 1: Make observations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: I am sick with a stomachache. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Develop a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: I am sick due to the spoiled food I ate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> for lunch. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Test hypothesis through experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Ask others who ate the same food for lunch if they got sick. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. SCIENTIFIC METHOD (Cont) <ul><li>Step 4: Develop a law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law: Summarizes the outcome of several experiments that occur repeatedly and consistently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The spoiled food served at lunch makes people sick with a stomachache. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Develop a theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory: Explanation for a why a law exists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: It is the bacteria in the spoiled food that makes people ill. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SCIENTIFIC METHOD (Cont) <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are never completely certain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May change as more experiments are performed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A model is a physical picture or mathematical expression of a theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Model of the atom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The scientific method must be free of bias. </li></ul>
  9. 9. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
  10. 10. ELEMENTS <ul><li>Elemental substances contain only one type of atom </li></ul><ul><li>Elements are the building blocks of matter </li></ul><ul><li>There are 115 known elements today, 90 which occur naturally </li></ul><ul><li>The periodic table displays the elements </li></ul>
  11. 11. ELEMENTS (Cont) <ul><li>Each element has a unique symbol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first letter is always capitalized, the second letter is always lower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorine is F, not f </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalt is Co, not CO (which is carbon monoxide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The smallest unit of an element is the atom </li></ul>
  12. 12. COMPOUNDS <ul><li>Pure substances containing more than one different element. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl (table salt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NaCl is the chemical formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O (water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 2 atoms of hydrogen (H) and 1 atom of oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O is the chemical formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements in compounds are combined in a definite ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O is water but H 2 O 2 is hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. COMPOUNDS (cont) <ul><li>Are H 2 and O 3 considered elements or compounds? Why? </li></ul>
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER <ul><li>Classify the following as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orange juice from squeezed oranges </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>Solid Liquid Gas </li></ul>Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. WATER AND ITS STATES OF MATTER
  17. 17. CHANGES IN STATE <ul><li>Melting: Solid to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling: Liquid to gas </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation: Solid to gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The above three require input of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation: Gas to liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing: Liquid to solid </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition: Gas to solid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The above three release energy </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PHYSICAL CHANGES <ul><li>Do not alter the chemical identity of the substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any change in the state of matter (e.g. freezing or boiling water) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sawing wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crushing a tablet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bending a wire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolving salt in water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Characterize the physical state and physical behavior of a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Each substance has unique physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur appears as a yellow powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The boiling point of water is 100 o C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide is odorless </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. CHEMICAL CHANGES <ul><li>Changes the identity of the substance as the chemical composition changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tarnishing of silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ag forms AgS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rusting of iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Fe forms Fe 2 O 3 ) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. CHEMICAL REACTIONS <ul><li>Are expressed using chemical equations. </li></ul><ul><li>Rusting of iron: </li></ul><ul><li>4 Fe + 3 O 2  2 Fe 2 O 3 (rust) </li></ul><ul><li>reactants products </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>Four atoms of iron react with three molecules of oxygen to form two molecules of rust </li></ul>
  22. 22. CHEMICAL REACTIONS (Cont) <ul><li>Zn + 2 HCl  ZnCl 2 + H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc hydrochloric acid zinc chloride hydrogen gas </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>One atom of zinc reacts with two molecules of hydrochloric acid to produce one molecule of zinc chloride and one molecule of hydrogen gas. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES <ul><li>Describe ways pure substances behave when interacting with other pure substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron reacts with oxygen to form rust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platinum does not react with oxygen at room temperature. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. PRACTICE PROBLEM <ul><li>Identify the following properties and </li></ul><ul><li>changes as physical or chemical. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The copper sheets that form the “skin” of the Statue of Liberty have acquired a greenish coating over the years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon appears as black powder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding food coloring to water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood burns in air. </li></ul></ul>

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