Biochemistry                                                 Carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates                                           Structure of Glycogen
    Glycogen, another polymer of glu...
Proteins                                                         Insulin
 Proteins are large molecules that may
 consist o...
Mono-Unsaturated Fats
Mono-                   Poly-Unsaturated Fats

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  1. 1. Biochemistry Carbohydrates There are two types of carbohydrates: The simple sugars Glucose, sucrose, fructose (and many others) The complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates that are made of long chains of sugars Lysozyme – Starches, cellulose a protein Simple Sugars Simple Sugars Disaccharides have two sugar units bonded together. All carbohydrates are made up of units For example, common table sugar is sucrose of sugar (also called (below), a disaccharide that consists of a saccharide units). glucose unit bonded to a fructose unit. Carbohydrates that contain only one sugar unit are called Glucose Fructose monosaccharides. Complex Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates Starch (below) is a polymer of the monosaccharide Complex carbohydrates are polymers of glucose (n is the number of repeating glucose the simple sugars. units and ranges in the 1,000's). In other words, the complex carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugar units bonded together. For this reason the complex carbohydrates are often referred to as polysaccharides. Starches and cellulose are complex carbohydrates used by plants for energy storage and structural integrity. 1
  2. 2. Complex Carbohydrates Structure of Glycogen Glycogen, another polymer of glucose, is the polysaccharide used by animals to store energy. Both starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose. Starch is a long, straight chain of glucose units, whereas glycogen is a branched chain of glucose units. Proteins Twenty amino o Proteins are polymers of acids in amino acids. human o Amino acids all have the general structure: metabolism o The R in the diagram represents a functional group that varies depending on the specific amino acid in question. Proteins Proteins When 2 amino acids bond together, water is released as the carboxyl end of one amino acid bonds to the amine end of the adjacent one forming a peptide bond, as illustrated at the left. When many amino acids bond together to create long Because water is lost, the process is called: chains, the structure is called a protein (it is also Condensation synthesis, or… called a polypeptide because it contains many peptide Condensation polymerization bonds). 2
  3. 3. Proteins Insulin Proteins are large molecules that may consist of hundreds, or even thousands of amino acids. While there are hundreds of thousands of different proteins that exist in nature, they are all made up of different combinations of amino acids. Fats Fats Fats are also known as triglycerides, molecules Fats are a sub-group of compounds made from the combination of one molecule of known as lipids that are found in the glycerol with three fatty acids. body and have the general property of being hydrophobic (meaning they are “R” is a insoluble in water). long chain of Other lipids include waxes, and steroids, carbon such as cholesterol. and hydrogen Glycerol Fatty Triglyceride acids Fats Saturated Fats The type of fatty acid in the molecule determines the type of fat: Saturated fats All single bonds in the carbon chain Solids at room temperature Mono-unsaturated fats One double bond in the carbon chain, the remainder single Liquids at room temperature All of the carbon – carbon bonds are Polyunsaturated fats single bonds. Two or more double bonds in the carbon chain Liquids at room temperature 3
  4. 4. Mono-Unsaturated Fats Mono- Poly-Unsaturated Fats Poly- 4