There are two types of carbohydrates:
The simple sugars
Glucose, sucrose, fructose (and many others)
The complex carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates that are made of long chains of
Lysozyme – Starches, cellulose
Simple Sugars Simple Sugars
Disaccharides have two sugar units bonded
are made up of units For example, common table sugar is sucrose
of sugar (also called (below), a disaccharide that consists of a
saccharide units). glucose unit bonded to a fructose unit.
contain only one
sugar unit are called Glucose Fructose
Complex Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates
Starch (below) is a polymer of the monosaccharide
Complex carbohydrates are polymers of
glucose (n is the number of repeating glucose
the simple sugars. units and ranges in the 1,000's).
In other words, the complex
carbohydrates are long chains of simple
sugar units bonded together.
For this reason the complex
carbohydrates are often referred to as
polysaccharides. Starches and cellulose are complex carbohydrates
used by plants for energy storage and structural
Complex Carbohydrates Structure of Glycogen
Glycogen, another polymer of glucose, is the
polysaccharide used by animals to store energy.
Both starch and glycogen are polymers of
Starch is a long, straight chain of glucose units,
whereas glycogen is a branched chain of glucose
Proteins Twenty amino
o Proteins are polymers of acids in
amino acids. human
o Amino acids all have the
general structure: metabolism
o The R in the diagram
represents a functional
group that varies depending
on the specific amino acid
When 2 amino acids bond
together, water is
released as the carboxyl
end of one amino acid
bonds to the amine end of
the adjacent one forming
a peptide bond, as
illustrated at the left.
When many amino acids bond together to create long
Because water is lost, the process is called:
chains, the structure is called a protein (it is also
Condensation synthesis, or… called a polypeptide because it contains many peptide
Condensation polymerization bonds).
Proteins are large molecules that may
consist of hundreds, or even thousands
of amino acids.
While there are hundreds of thousands
of different proteins that exist in
nature, they are all made up of
different combinations of amino acids.
Fats Fats are also known as triglycerides, molecules
Fats are a sub-group of compounds made from the combination of one molecule of
known as lipids that are found in the glycerol with three fatty acids.
body and have the general property of
being hydrophobic (meaning they are “R” is a
insoluble in water). long
Other lipids include waxes, and steroids, carbon
such as cholesterol. and
Glycerol Fatty Triglyceride
Fats Saturated Fats
The type of fatty acid in the molecule
determines the type of fat:
All single bonds in the carbon chain
Solids at room temperature
One double bond in the carbon chain, the remainder single
Liquids at room temperature All of the carbon – carbon bonds are
Polyunsaturated fats single bonds.
Two or more double bonds in the carbon chain
Liquids at room temperature