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Dietrich Kracke Esdp2007

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Dietrich Kracke Esdp2007

  1. 1. Dimensions of Parental Support in Adolescents’ Occupational Preparation Symposium on “Intergenerational family relations over the life-span” August 22, 2007 | Jena, Germany 13th European Conference on Developmental Psychology
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Concept Parental Support </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmatory Factor Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting two Career Development Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career Exploration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Career Uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Parental Support <ul><li>Developmental task of choosing a career </li></ul><ul><li>Family processes are a crucial developmental context in adolescents’ career preparation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents speak most frequently with their parents about career issues (Fend, 1991; Otto, 2000); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name their parents as major partners in their career preparation process (Kracke, 2001; Tynkkynen et al., 2007). </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Parental Support <ul><li>Majority of studies have addressed general aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment (Blustein, Walbridge, Friedlander & Palladino, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuation (Grotevant & Cooper, 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting styles (Tracey, Lent, Brown, Soresi & Nota, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family climate and family dysfunction (Hargrove, Inman, & Crane, 2005; Ryan, Solberg, & Brown, 1996) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Parental Support <ul><li>Qualitative studies provide more insight into the specific interaction behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of parents on their children’s career development is rather bidirectional than unidirectional (Young et al., 2001); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career choice is one developmental goal, which adolescents and their parents strive for while being engaged in other goals at the same time (Young et al., 2006). </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Parental Support <ul><li>Interview studies further illustrate, which parental behaviors adolescents perceive to be influential in their career development (Altman, 1997; Kracke & Noack, 2005; Oechsle et al., 2002; Phillips et al. 2001; Schultheiss et al., 2001). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental support, that is, freedom of choice while offering orientation and instrumental support (e.g. writing applications) if needed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental over-controlling of adolescents’ career related actions and choices; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of parental engagement in the career development process at all. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Parental Support <ul><li>Summing up: </li></ul><ul><li>The overall quality of the parent-adolescent relationship is relatively stable over time, whereas specific parental activities may change in accordance to adolescents’ progress in career preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need for operationalization of parental support in career preparation for large-scale longitudinal investigations and interventions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dimensions of Parental Support <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage to explore vocational interests and abilities as well as various occupational options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to reflect career choice relevant experiences, and provide advice and instrumental support in choosing a vocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know about offspring’s progress in preparing his or her career choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over-involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exert pressure in the career development process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to put through own ideas about the offspring’s occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect the career preparation process due to actual disinterest in the issue of career choice or parents’ excessive demands regarding their offspring’s career choice and in other life domains </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Aims of the Present Study <ul><li>Validate a three-dimensional questionnaire instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Predict two career development outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Career exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examine gender differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associations between parental support behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of perceived support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associations between parental behaviors and career exploration and uncertainty </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Participants and Procedure <ul><li>351 German adolescents ( 157 female and 194 male) </li></ul><ul><li>Age 15 to 18 (M = 15.9, SD = .95) </li></ul><ul><li>Students attended comprehensive schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in the lower track (13.7 %) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the middle track (49.5 %) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the higher track (34.1 %) of the German educational system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Median grade was 9 th class </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apprenticeship fair in an eastern German city </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Measures: Parental Support <ul><li>Support (7 Items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents talk to me about my vocational interests and abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents encourage me to seek information about vocations I am interested in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents support me in getting an apprenticeship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents give advice on the choice of careers available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents talk to me about apprenticeship opportunities in various careers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents know about the status quo of my vocational preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents know about my progress in my vocational preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cronbach’s Alpha | Girls: Alpha = .93 | Boys: Alpha = .84 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Measures: Parental Support <ul><li>Over-involvement (6 Items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents have their own ideas about my future vocation and try to influence me accordingly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents interfere too much with my vocational preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents try to put through their ideas of my future vocation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents would talk me out of a vocation they don´t like. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents try to push me in a certain direction regarding my future vocation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My vocational preparation comes rather from my parents than from myself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cronbach’s Alpha | Girls: Alpha = .72 | Boys: Alpha = .78 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Measures: Parental Support <ul><li>Lack of engagement (5 Items) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents are not really interested in my future vocation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents don´t care about my vocational preparation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents cannot support my vocational preparation, because they know too little about different vocations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents cannot support my vocational preparation, because they are too busy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My parents cannot support my vocational preparation, as they face difficulties at work themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Cronbach’s Alpha | Girls: Alpha = .68 | Boys: Alpha = .75 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Dependent Measures <ul><li>Career exploration (Kracke, 1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “I talk to as many people as possible about occupations I am interested in.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Career uncertainty (Seifert, 1992) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “For me it is very difficult to decide on my future vocation.” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis <ul><li>Model fit for multi-group model (female/male) </li></ul>Fit statistics  2 (df = 256) 382.20  2/df 1.49 RMSEA .053 SRMR .08 NNFI/TLI .91 CFI .91
  16. 16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis <ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul>Support Over- involvement Lack of engagement .05 .14 -.66* Support Over- involvement Lack of engagement -.17* .63* -.51* M = 3.13* (.64) M = 1.69* (.61) M = 1.60 (.61) M = 2.95* (.65) M = 1.82* (.65) M = 1.65 (.61)
  17. 17. Structural Equation Modeling <ul><li>Model fit for multi-group model (female/male) </li></ul>Fit statistics  2 (df = 482) 731.23  2/df 1.52 RMSEA .055 SRMR .08 NNFI/TLI .87 CFI .87
  18. 18. Structural Equation Modeling <ul><li>Predicting career exploration: Female </li></ul>Career exploration -.15 (r=-.05) .46* (r=.00) .69* (r=.39) R² = .28 Support Over- involvement Lack of engagement -.66* .14 .05
  19. 19. Structural Equation Modeling <ul><li>Predicting career exploration: Male </li></ul>Support Over- involvement Lack of engagement -.51* .63* -.17* Career exploration -.17 (r = -.10) .33 (r = -.19) .84* (r = .70) R² = .54
  20. 20. Structural Equation Modeling <ul><li>Model fit for multi-group model (female/male) </li></ul>Fit statistics  2 (df = 482) 692.03  2/df 1.44 RMSEA .051 SRMR .08 NNFI/TLI .89 CFI .89
  21. 21. Structural Equation Modeling <ul><li>Predicting career uncertainty: Female </li></ul>Support Over- involvement Lack of engagement -.66* .14 .05 Career uncertainty .17 (r = .17) .17 (r = .19) -.02 (r = -.08) R² = .05
  22. 22. Structural Equation Modeling <ul><li>Predicting career uncertainty: Male </li></ul>Support Over- involvement Lack of engagement -.51* .63* -.17* Career uncertainty .06 (r=-.28) .28 + (r=.33) -.09 (r=-.17) R² = .12
  23. 23. Summary of Results <ul><li>Three-dimensional factor structure could be confirmed, </li></ul><ul><li>Girls reported slightly more support and less over-involvement than boys, </li></ul><ul><li>Career exploration was positively related with parental support, </li></ul><ul><li>Career uncertainty was positively related with over-involvement for boys. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Discussion <ul><li>Concept of specific parental support behaviors could be operationalized successfully. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next step is to investigate the mutual process in longitudinal studies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different aspects of support seem to affect different career development outcomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a need to assess parental support behaviors multi-dimensionally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next step is to examine further the associations between girls‘ and boys‘ progress in career preparation and parental support. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Implications for Practice <ul><li>Much is known about the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Career preparation is one concrete developmental task in adolescence that is affected by several contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lack of research on the interaction of developmental contexts, e.g. school and family. </li></ul><ul><li>More research on specific parental behaviors will provide a ground for theory-based interventions. </li></ul>

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