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  1. 1. Adviser: Dr. Meng-Jang Lin Presenter: Stan Chung Date: January 7, 2010
  2. 2. I. Introduction II. Literature Review III. Methodology
  3. 3. II. Statement of problem I. Research Background III. Research Purpose
  4. 4. <ul><li>Word-of-mouth has been approved by many researchers that it has huge effect on consumer’s purchasing behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(Buttle, 1998; East, Hammond, & Lomax, 2008; Godes & Mayzlin, 2004) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Word-of-Mouse </li></ul>Word-of-Mouse Word-of-Mouth = Internet +
  6. 6. <ul><li>There were many researches focused on either word-of-mouse or consumer involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>However, few researches considered consumer involvement as an intervening variable of word-of-mouse. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>to explore the influence of word-of-mouse and consumer involvement on consumer purchase behavior </li></ul>
  8. 8. III. Consumer information seeking I. Word-of-mouse III. Involvement II. Trust
  9. 9. <ul><li>Consumer information seeking behavior </li></ul>Attempting to purchase Perceiving risk, anxious Minimizing the risk Seeking information (Srinivasan & Ratchford, 1991)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Word-of-Mouse </li></ul>Direct to multiple individuals No time & geographic restriction Anonymity Characteristics (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh & Gremler, 2004)
  11. 11. <ul><li>The need for trust only arises in a risky situation. </li></ul><ul><li>(Mayer et al., 1995) </li></ul>Anonymity Trustworthiness?
  12. 12. <ul><li>Definition of Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychologists define trust as an expectation about the behaviour of others in transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>(Lewicki & Bunker, 1995) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Trust </li></ul>Expertness Trustworthiness Attractiveness the extent to which a communicator is perceived to be a source of valid assertions refers to the honesty and believability of a communicator. includes a number of characteristics of a communicator might have (e.g. intellectual skills, personality properties, lifestyles) (Erdogan, 1999)
  14. 14. <ul><li>Definition of Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s perceived relevance of the object based on inherent needs, values, and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>(Zaichkowsky, 1986) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Involvement </li></ul>(Robertson et al., 1984) Behavioral Dimension High-Involvement View Low-Involvement View Information Seeking Consumers actively seek product and brand information Consumers seek limited product and brand information Attitude Change Attitude change is difficult and rare Attitude change is frequent but short
  16. 16. V. Data Analysis I. Research Procedure II. Research Structure III. Participant IV. Instrument
  17. 17. <ul><li>Research Procedure </li></ul>Questionnaire design Data collection Questionnaire revision Data analysis Pilot study
  18. 18. <ul><li>Research Procedure </li></ul>Word-of-mouth Purchase Behavior Involvement
  19. 19. <ul><li>Participants </li></ul>Tourists in Gugam Time 15 minutes Quantity 30 (pre-test) 300 (formal study) Age 18-65
  20. 20. <ul><li>Instrument </li></ul>1 strongly disagree 5 strongly agree Questionnaire (31 items) 5 points Likert scale Part 1 (13) Word-of-mouse (Ohanian, 1990; Swartz, 1984; Wu, 2009) Part 2 (10) Consumer Involvement (Mcquarrie & Munson, 1992; Lee, 2006) Part 3 (8) Consumer purchase behavior (Swinyard, 1993) Part 4 Personal information
  21. 21. <ul><li>Part 1. Word-of-mouse </li></ul>Expertness Trustworthiness Attractiveness
  22. 22. <ul><li>Part 3. Consumer involvement </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Part 3. Consumer purchase behavior </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Part 4. Personal information </li></ul>
  25. 25. SPSS 13.0 for windows Descriptive statistics analysis To know the distribution of participants personal information Pearson Correlation To examine the relationships between the variables (can not test cause and effect) Regression Analysis To examine the causal effect between variables