THIS SLIDE IS PRESENTED TO YOU BY<br />HAMZA RASHEED<br />&<br />MUHAMMED HAFEEZ (ADMIN OF HELP IN STUDIES ON FACEBOOK)<br...
Learning objectives<br />Functions of mitochondria.<br />Locomotion of cells<br />
Extraction of energy from nutrients<br />Energy is extracted from foodstuffs.<br />Oxygen reacts with carbohydrates, fats ...
Functional characteristics of ATP<br />ATP is a nucleotide composed of:-<br />  1-The nitrogenous base adenine<br />  2-Th...
    Each high energy bonds contains about 12,000 calories of energy per mole of ATP.<br />    When ATP releases its energy...
Chemical process in the formation of ATP<br />Glycolysis<br />Citric acid cycle<br />The overall process of formation of A...
Uses of ATP for cellular function<br />ATP is used for 3 major categories of functions:-<br />1-Transport of substances th...
Locomotion of cells<br />2 types of movements are present:-<br />1- Ameboid movement<br />2- Ciliary movement<br />
Types of cells that exhibit ameboid movement<br />WBC<br />Fibroblasts<br />Germinal cells of skin<br />Movement of embryo...
Control of ameboid movement<br />Chemotaxis- Initiates movement<br />Chemotactic substances<br />Positive chemotaxis<br />...
Ciliary movements<br />Whiplike movement of cilia<br />Occurs in two places in humans:-<br />1-Respiratory  airways<br />2...
Cilium has the appearance of a sharp pointed straight or curved hair that projects 2-4 micrometers from the surface of cel...
Cilium is covered by an outcropping of CM.<br />It is supported by 11 microtubules – 9 double tubules located around the p...
Each cilium is an outgrowth of a structure that lies immediately beneath the CM, called the basal body of the cilium.<br /...
Cilium moves forward with a sudden , rapid whiplike stroke 10-20 times per second, bending sharply where it projects from ...
Mechanism of ciliary movement<br />1-Nine double tubules and two single tubules are linked by complex of protein cross lin...
3-After destruction beating depends on:-<br />   -Availability of ATP<br />   -Appropriate ionic conditions esp Mg and Ca<...
5-Multiple protein arms composed of protein Dynein which has ATPase  enzymatic activity, project from each double tubule t...
Cell Part 3
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Cell Part 3

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PHYSIOLOGY
CELL PART 3

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Cell Part 3

  1. 1. THIS SLIDE IS PRESENTED TO YOU BY<br />HAMZA RASHEED<br />&<br />MUHAMMED HAFEEZ (ADMIN OF HELP IN STUDIES ON FACEBOOK)<br />http://www.facebook.com/group.php?v=wall&gid=319795502526<br />PLEASE STOP PIRACY & STEALING PEOPLE WORK,<br />AND GET a LIFE.<br />PEACE<br />THANKS<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Learning objectives<br />Functions of mitochondria.<br />Locomotion of cells<br />
  4. 4. Extraction of energy from nutrients<br />Energy is extracted from foodstuffs.<br />Oxygen reacts with carbohydrates, fats and proteins under the influence of enzymes.<br />All these reactions occur in mitochondria.<br />ATP is formed.<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Functional characteristics of ATP<br />ATP is a nucleotide composed of:-<br /> 1-The nitrogenous base adenine<br /> 2-The pentose sugar ribose<br /> 3-Three phosphate radicals<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Each high energy bonds contains about 12,000 calories of energy per mole of ATP.<br /> When ATP releases its energy, a phosphoric acid radical is split away and ADP is formed.<br /> ATP is called Energy currency of cell as it can be spent and remade continually.<br />
  9. 9. Chemical process in the formation of ATP<br />Glycolysis<br />Citric acid cycle<br />The overall process of formation of ATP is called Chemiosmotic mechanism.<br />
  10. 10. Uses of ATP for cellular function<br />ATP is used for 3 major categories of functions:-<br />1-Transport of substances through multiple membranes of the cell<br />2-Synthesis of chemical compounds<br />3-Mechanical work<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Locomotion of cells<br />2 types of movements are present:-<br />1- Ameboid movement<br />2- Ciliary movement<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Types of cells that exhibit ameboid movement<br />WBC<br />Fibroblasts<br />Germinal cells of skin<br />Movement of embryonic cells<br />
  15. 15. Control of ameboid movement<br />Chemotaxis- Initiates movement<br />Chemotactic substances<br />Positive chemotaxis<br />Negative chemotaxis<br />
  16. 16. Ciliary movements<br />Whiplike movement of cilia<br />Occurs in two places in humans:-<br />1-Respiratory airways<br />2-Movement of ovum from ovary to uterus<br />
  17. 17. Cilium has the appearance of a sharp pointed straight or curved hair that projects 2-4 micrometers from the surface of cell.<br />Almost 200 cilia on the surface of each epithelial cell inside respiratory passages.<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Cilium is covered by an outcropping of CM.<br />It is supported by 11 microtubules – 9 double tubules located around the periphery of the cilium, and 2 single tubules down in the center.<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Each cilium is an outgrowth of a structure that lies immediately beneath the CM, called the basal body of the cilium.<br />Flagellum of a sperm is similar to a cilium.<br />Difference is that flagellum is much longer and moves in quasi-sinusoidal waves .<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Cilium moves forward with a sudden , rapid whiplike stroke 10-20 times per second, bending sharply where it projects from the surface of the cell.<br />Then it moves backwards slowly to its initial position.<br />The fluid is continually propelled in direction of fast of fast forward stroke.<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Mechanism of ciliary movement<br />1-Nine double tubules and two single tubules are linked by complex of protein cross linkages to one another.<br />This whole complex is called axoneme.<br />2-If membrane is removed and other elements of cilium besides axoneme is destroyed, the cilium can still beat under appropriate conditions.<br />
  26. 26. 3-After destruction beating depends on:-<br /> -Availability of ATP<br /> -Appropriate ionic conditions esp Mg and Ca<br />4-During forward movement, the double tubules on the front edge of the cilium slide outwards towards the tip of cilium and those on back edge remain in place.<br />
  27. 27. 5-Multiple protein arms composed of protein Dynein which has ATPase enzymatic activity, project from each double tubule toward an adjacent double tubule.<br />

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