Pathology ii

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Pathology ii

  1. 1. Pathology II Doug Kriz Dan Lindquist Becca Lynch Nick manos
  2. 2. Bone Cancer <ul><li>Malignant tumor that grows in bones and kills healthy cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. Symptoms <ul><li>Swelling of limbs and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened bones </li></ul><ul><li>Severe pain </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul>
  4. 4. Causes <ul><li>Cause is not known </li></ul><ul><li>People that use anti cancer drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Can be heredity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Treatment <ul><li>Surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Radiotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Cryosurgery </li></ul>
  6. 6. Result of Treatment <ul><li>Surgery usually works </li></ul><ul><li>Follow ups are needed </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spinal Bifida Occulta <ul><li>No effect on spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Usually found in children </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spinal bifida manifesta <ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><li>Meningocele </li></ul><ul><li>Myelomeningocele </li></ul>
  9. 9. Meningcele <ul><li>Involves the meninges </li></ul><ul><li>Meninges (membranes that cover the brain) push through the vertebral holes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Myelomeningocele <ul><li>Most severe form </li></ul><ul><li>When meninges push through the spinal cord and back </li></ul>
  11. 11. Symptoms <ul><li>Occulta-No signs </li></ul><ul><li>Meningocele-Fluid filled sac on there back </li></ul><ul><li>Myelomeningocele-Nerves of the spinal cord </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes <ul><li>Cause is not known </li></ul>
  13. 13. Treatment <ul><li>Babies usually have surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Tube in brain to flush fluids out </li></ul>
  14. 14. Results of Treatment <ul><li>Many kids need an aid to walk around </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scoliosis <ul><li>Symptoms-S or C shaped curvature of spine </li></ul><ul><li>Causes-present at birth may be hereditary </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment-Back brace, surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of treatment-Back brace prevents further curving, surgery can correct spine </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lordosis <ul><li>Symptoms-Inward curve of spine mostly in lumbar area </li></ul><ul><li>Causes-Bad posture, obesity, kyphosis </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment-Not usually needed, back brace, physical therapy, medication </li></ul><ul><li>Results of treatment-Back brace can help reduce curvature </li></ul>
  17. 17. Kyphosis <ul><li>Symptoms-Abnormal curve in thoracic part of spine </li></ul><ul><li>Causes-Bad posture </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment-Surgery, back brace, medication </li></ul>
  18. 18. Acromegaly <ul><li>Results pituitary gland producing excess growth hormones after puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms-enlarged feet, hands, nose, lips and internal organ will grow as well, growing thicker vocal cords </li></ul><ul><li>Causes-Benign tumor of the pituitary gland that expand and cause brain to compress </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment-treatment to relieve pressure from the brain surgery is also required to remove tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Results-hormone levels return to normal </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hyperparathyroidismis <ul><li>Over activity of the parathyroid gland resulting in in excess hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Usually no sign or symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Causes-benign parathyroid adenoma causing higher calcium levels </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery and prescription drugs to reduce calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Results-only results are vomitting from drug. </li></ul>

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