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  1. 1. Effective strategies to facilitate higher rates of attendance from high school students and their families at school sponsored events.<br /><ul><li>Literature Review...............................................................Pages 2-8
  2. 2. Section I - Introduction .......................................................................Page s 9-12
  3. 3. o Statement of the Problem and Significance
  4. 4. o Purpose of the study (focus and research questions)
  5. 5. Section II- Procedure.............................................................................Pages 13-18
  6. 6. o Overall strategy and rationale
  7. 7. o Assumptions and rationale for a qualitative design
  8. 8. o Type of design used
  9. 9. o Researcher’s Role
  10. 10. o Focusing on the specific setting, population and phenomenon
  11. 11. o Ethics considerations
  12. 12. o Data Collection Procedures
  13. 13. o Data Recording Procedures
  14. 14. Section III- Data.............................................................................Pages 19-28
  15. 15. o Data Analysis and Interpretation
  16. 16. o Reliability, Validity, Generalizability
  17. 17. o Reporting the Findings
  18. 18. o Data Tables
  19. 19. Section IV - References........................................................................................Pages 29-30</li></li></ul><li>Literature Review<br /> Many schools continue to struggle with a lack of parent participation and find that activities or events that have been created specifically to enhance communication and relationships between school and home have very few attendees. Federal regulations including Title I, Title IV, and Title V specify components that should be included when looking at creating a school wide plan for increased parental involvement. Some of these funds may be used “to implement programs, activities and procedures for the involvement of parents to improve student academic performance and school performance.” In addition, federal funding can and should be used to “work with parents as equal partners, implement and coordinate parent programs, and build ties between the parent and the school.” Current literature points to the fact that facilitating communication and having a collaborative relationship between school and parents is viewed as essential for student success. <br />
  20. 20. Literature ReviewHistory of Parental Involvement<br /> <br /> According to Adams and Christenson in 1999, &quot;... the alliance between home and school has dramatically changed throughout the history of formal education, as have the roles and functions that parents and teachers are expected to fulfill&quot; (p.477). <br /> The concepts surrounding the importance of parents involvement in their child’s education has changed significantly since public education began to become accepted and introduced as a part of everyday life in this country. Beginning in the 19th century, schools felt that parents created a hindrance and at times “got in the way of teachers doing their jobs.” Teachers taught and children went to them to learn. That is why they went to school, to be taught and to learn. <br />
  21. 21. Literature ReviewHistory of Parental Involvement<br /> An example of this timely belief is documented as occurring in Concord Massachusetts in the 1840’s when a school committee found that parents were impeding their children&apos;s success in school and made distancing parents from their children&apos;s education one of their primary goals (Bettencourt, 1982). To be fair, as is the case even now, some parents did not receive formal educations, spoke different languages or were just busy trying to survive. In the professionals belief they could not add much to the instruction or achievement of their child in school. Our country was still mainly agriculturally based at this time, and slavery continued to be legal. People who went to school had a specific purpose in going, and often this was based on socioeconomic status. Many families could not afford to allow their children to attend school due to the demands of the family and usually farming as their means of survival.<br />
  22. 22. Literature ReviewHistory of Parental Involvement<br /> This philosophy seemed to continue to be mainstream thought until the end of the 19th century. Schools and families were content to let the teachers teach and the parent’s parent. Then a great movement started to take place. The PTA was formed in 1897 by Alice McLellan Birney and Phoebe Apperson Hearst and parental involvement took on a whole new meaning. (EducationBug.com, 2009). The Parent Teacher Association or PTA began based on the premise that children needed a voice. The children would be heard through their parents and other adults that were concerned for their communities and the welfare of the children within those communities. <br /> The PTA movement assisted in the creation of kindergarten, juvenile justice, and child labor laws. After WWII, many districts and schools throughout the United States began to include parents in other school functions outside of participation in the PTA. “The idea of getting parents involved in their children&apos;s education started in the late 1940s and early 1950s with parent-teacher conferences, homework monitoring, report card review and signings, PTA meetings, fundraisers and &quot;room mothers,&quot; (McLaughlin & Sheldon, 1987).<br />
  23. 23. Literature ReviewHistory of Parental Involvement<br /> Beginning in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, researchers began looking at the effect of parent involvement in relation to student academic success. A study conducted by Herman and Yeh, found that the …”the degree of parent interest and participation in school activities is positively related to student achievement.” (Herman & Yeh, 1980, p.6). The movement and research continued through the 1980’s and 1990’s when it then became mandated that parental involvement be included in school and district plans. The beginning of the 21st century brought about some of the greatest change thus far and continues to be a highly important issue for districts, schools, teachers, families and the community. <br /> Parental involvement means different things to different people The term “parent” in this paper is used but also applies to guardians, caregivers, foster parents, grandparents or the person who is the main adult responsible for the student’s primary care.<br /> <br />
  24. 24. Literature ReviewWhat exactly is parent involvement? <br />Parent involvement can take many forms. The literature suggests that a combination or integration of parent participation in both school and home environments produce higher school success rates for students, but, Desimone (1998), concluded that school level involvement had less effect on achievement than parent-child involvement.” ( Desimone 1998). In addition, McNeal, (1999) has found that Caucasians and African Americans increase achievement through parent child discussions, but that this is not a significant factor for Asians or Hispanics. <br /> At home, all parents can increase participation by being more involved in helping their children with homework, discussing their child’s day at school, monitoring homework completion and future due dates of projects and assignments, and making sure there is an appropriate space for their child to complete work, study, read, or research. Involvement at school can include attending school functions and responding to school obligations such as parent-teacher conferences, volunteering, and attending extracurricular events. Parents can also “…take an active role in the governance and decision making necessary for planning, developing, and providing an education for the community&apos;s children.” (Cotton and Wikelund, 1999).<br />
  25. 25. Literature ReviewRoadblocks<br /> There continue to be many roadblocks when attempting to address the issue of parental involvement in schools. “Promoting parent-school partnerships is an effective means to enhance school and student performance, but shaping a culture supportive of such partnerships is not easy.” (Forsyth & Adams 2006). Most families inherently want to see their children thrive, be happy and feel a sense of purpose and accomplishment throughout their lives. Many times, parents who have full time jobs, more than one child or who maintain a single parent household, struggle with the time, resources, and stamina to participate in “extra” school functions. Their involvement is as much as they feel they can possibly do based on their current circumstances. <br />
  26. 26. This collaborative effort between school and home appears to be particularly difficult within less rural settings, where “Disconnections between home and school may be especially acute in urban areas where school personnel may not understand the culture of the students and families with whom they work.” (Howland, Anderson, Smiley, & Abbott, 2006, p.47). Additionally, parents who speak other languages or have a lack of educational success and experience themselves may find it uncomfortable or even arduous to attend certain functions. What can a parent do when their child needs help with homework and they neither speak the language or they do not have the academic understanding of the subject matter to help their own child? Lastly, many students may have family members who have substance abuse issues or emotional or physical limitations that keep them from engaging in activities outside of the home. <br />Literature ReviewRoadblocks<br />
  27. 27. Literature Review Progressive Change<br /> <br /> Districts have begun to understand the demands that exist on the families and are working on finding ways to overcome them. In addition, teacher training is recently beginning to address these issues for new teachers. Districts have also recently begun to collaborate and offer in services on how to assist parents in these types of situations. Providing opportunities for school-to-home and home-to-school communications with families, providing communications to families in a language that all families can understand, and distributing information provided at school events to the families who could not attend can all be beneficial strategies to overcome some of these barriers. The California Teachers Association provides us with an excellent example of how districts can increase communication between parents and schools through removing the barriers of language or culture. The CTA has continued its practice of annual back to school reminders in the form of print and radio ads. 75 radio stations aired the back to school announcements on Spanish, Asian and English language as well as various culturally based radio stations. <br />
  28. 28. Print ads appeared in approximately 50 ethnic newspapers, including African American, Latino, Native American, Chinese, Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, Filipino and Thai publications. (Goodwin 2005). <br /> Studies of parent participation and the effect it has on their child’s school success have increased dramatically within the past thirty years. Before that time, parents were involved slightly, with the exception being parents who participated in local PTA meetings and activities. With all the research and data, as well as legal mandates, schools continue to recognize that parents are essential to student learning and post high school success. There are definite strategies states, districts, schools, and teachers can employ to include parents in this collaborative effort. Parents want to be involved and schools are making the effort to create comfortable and inclusive environments that can and will allow families, schools, and communities to work together to assist their youth in becoming more successful and personally fulfilled throughout their lifetime.<br />Literature Review Progressive Change<br />
  29. 29. Effective Strategies<br /> Section I – Introduction<br /> Statement of the Problem and Significance<br /> Federal regulations including Title I, Title IV, Title V specify components that should be included when looking at creating a school wide plan for increased parental involvement. Some of these funds may be used “to implement programs, activities and procedures for the involvement of parents to improve student academic performance and school performance.”   In addition, federal funding can and should be used to “work with parents as equal partners, implement and coordinate parent programs, and build ties between the parent and the school.” <br />Section 1: Introduction and Purpose<br />
  30. 30. Facilitating communication and having a collaborative relationship between school and parents is viewed as essential for student success. Many schools continue to struggle with a lack of parent participation and find activities or events that have been created specifically to enhance communication and relationships between school and home have very few attendees. “Promoting parent-school partnerships is an effective means to enhance school and student performance, but shaping a culture supportive of such partnerships is not easy.” (Forsyth & Adams 2006). This collaborative effort between school and home appears to be particularly difficult within less rural settings, where “Disconnections between home and school may be especially acute in urban areas where school personnel may not understand the culture of the students and families with whom they work.” (Howland, Anderson, Smiley, & Abbott, 2006, p.47).<br /> It is the purpose of this study to understand the best practices of school and parent collaboration strategies and the perceptions of school staff and parents and their children surrounding their participation in school sponsored events.<br />Section 1: Introduction and Purpose<br />
  31. 31. Purpose of the study - research questions:<br /> How does school staff increase attendance of parents and students at school functions?<br /> What strategies will be discovered as being effective to facilitate higher rates of attendance from high school students and their families at school sponsored events?In what measurable ways are parent’s perceptions demonstrated regarding their attendance at school related events?In what measurable ways are student’s perceptions demonstrated regarding their family’s attendance at school related events?<br /> In what measurable ways are teacher’s perceptions demonstrated regarding student and family attendance at school related events? <br />Section 1: Introduction and Purpose<br />
  32. 32. In what measurable ways are parent’s perceptions demonstrated regarding their attendance at school related events?1. How do parents feel when attending school events?2. How do parents feel when meeting their child’s teachers and school principal?3. What are parents’ affective and cognitive perceptions of the purpose of events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?4. What do parents identify as motivators to attend events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?5. What are parent’s perceptions regarding the impact their attendance at school related events?  <br />Section 1: Introduction and Purpose<br />
  33. 33. In what measurable ways are student’s perceptions demonstrated regarding their family’s attendance at school related events??1. How do students feel when attending non-extracurricular school related events with their parents and families?2. How do students feel when their parents meet their teachers and school principal?3. What are students’ perceptions of the purpose of events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?4. What do students feel would motivate their parents to attend events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?5. What are students’ perceptions regarding the importance of their and their parents attendance at non-extracurricular school related events?<br /> <br />Section 1: Introduction and Purpose<br />
  34. 34. In what measurable ways are teacher’s perceptions demonstrated regarding student and parent attendance at school related events?1. How do teachers feel when attending school events?2. How do teachers feel when meeting their student’s parents?3. What are teacher’s affective and cognitive perceptions of the purpose of events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?4. What do teachers identify as motivators for parents and families to attend events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?5. What are teacher’s perceptions regarding the impact of parent and family attendance at school related events?<br />Section 1: Introduction and Purpose<br />
  35. 35. Section II – Procedure<br /> Assumptions and Rationale for a Qualitative Design<br /> Grounded Theory <br /> This study employs a qualitative approach and grounded theory methods with emergent strategies of data collection and analysis. Strauss and Corbin defined a grounded theory as one that is “. . . inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon it represents. That is, it is discovered, developed and provisionally verified through systematic data collection and analysis of data pertaining to that phenomenon. Therefore, data collection, analysis and theory stand in reciprocal relationship with each other.” (p. 23). One other aspect of qualitative research is the researcher’s ability to be knowledgeable of and complete the study to develop both an emic perspective (viewpoints of the participants and an etic perspective (viewpoints of the researcher(s). Watson-Grego, K. (1988, December), state “ the emic or culturally specific framework used by the members of a society/culture for interpreting and assigning meaning to experiences differs in various ways from the researcher’s ontological or interpretive framework (an etic framework).<br /> Furthermore, Creswell 2009 states, “the goal of qualitative research is to find meaning not by interpreting the outcomes, but through the process.”<br /> <br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  36. 36. Section 2: Procedure<br /> Characteristics of Qualitative Research (Creswell 2009)<br />• Natural setting (field focused) as a source of data<br />• Researcher is a key instrument of data collection<br />• Data collected as words and/or pictures<br />• Analysis of the data helps researchers to build abstractions, concepts, hypothesis and theories from the details.<br />• Focus on participants’ perspectives<br />• Outcome as process <br /> Strategies of Inquiry:<br /> Overall strategy and rationale <br /> In this study, effective strategies in a high school setting for increasing parental and student attendance at school sponsored events. <br /> The intent of this study is to discover effective strategies through the documented and self reported perceptions of parents, students, and teachers at an urban high school. . <br /> Grounded theory strategies will be used in this study relying heavily on participants’ meanings and interpretive inquiry.<br />
  37. 37. The Researcher’s Role:<br /> The researcher’s role for this study involves interaction through observation and interview with participants. Administrators and teachers are always looking for strategies to improve parent participation in school events. Through this study I hope to provide a more formal analysis of effective strategies and possibly some not so effective strategies that will help administrators, teachers, parents and students in a high school setting to develop better collaborative relationships through increased parental participation in school events. I have many years of experience with administration and teaching within the special education field and have had the opportunity to work with a wide variety of parents and students of most grade and ability levels. I have also had the opportunity to develop closer relationships with families due to their attendance at IEP and Treatment meetings. Attendance also becomes an issue when parents do not attend these meetings, as it is our legal obligation to have parents at every IEP meeting so that they have a voice in their child’s education. <br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  38. 38. The Researcher’s Role:<br /> In addition, I have extensive experience with the design and implementation of specific and individualized educational and behavioral plans for students with special needs, and both data collection and analysis are also part of my experience and daily job functions. This study was conducted at the school site in which I work. Historically, there has been a limited amount of parental and student involvement in our high school events. In contrast to this, involvement is much higher at other schools within the district and for this reason this study will be site specific. Though this may raise some questions of validity for some, I do not feel it will affect the responses of participants. I am aware of the traps of “Backyard” research (Glesne and Peshkin, 1992), in which researchers conduct studies within their own organization, or friends or immediate work settings. (Creswell 2009), and will be monitoring my own interactions and interpretations to avoid this. <br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  39. 39. Data Collection Procedures<br />Natural Setting<br />High School campus grades 9-12<br />Location: Bay Area, California<br />Actors/Participants: <br />There will be approximately 25 students, parents , and teachers participating in this study <br />Student Grade levels: 9-12<br />Process:<br />The researcher will be conducting unstructured interviews and complete observations of parents, students, and school staff before and/or during school sponsored events. <br />Researcher will utilize multiple data collection procedures.<br />• Observations – descriptive and reflective notes; researcher<br />• Interviews – one on one interview<br />• Documents – surveys, questionnaires (Possible, based on emergent design and development during study).<br /> <br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  40. 40. Data was collected and then compared through interviews and observation regarding parents, students’, and teachers perceptions of important factors effecting parents attendance at school functions. <br /> Considerations:<br /> Twenty- five parents, students, and teachers were asked to participate in this research study and were given information and provided with many opportunities to ask questions and express concerns. Everyone was comfortable and willing to participate. <br /> • Maintain confidentiality of data through securing information daily.<br /> • Preserve anonymity of participants.<br /> • Use data collected for its intended purpose of research.<br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  41. 41. Ethics considerations<br /> Parents, students , and teachers who choose to be interviewed and observed were asked to review a summary of the final results of the inquiry and those that participated in the review confirmed the credibility of the information. In addition, an intercoder agreement (a second research reviewer who analyzes the data to review and compare the codes they both perceive as being present) was employed. This study also used an external auditor, one of my colleagues who is not involved in the study, to provide a higher level of validity. The addition of other people to review and analyze data was discussed with the participants and everyone was comfortable and agreeable with this. Authenticity is demonstrated through the open dialogue that occurred between the researcher, parents and the students. Member checking to increase validity was used when research topics and emergent themes and study results were discussed with the parents and students. All participants were familiar with the nature of the research. The study was explained to the participants very thoroughly at the beginning of the research. Throughout the study, parents and students were engaged in dialogue and asked about their ideas and perceptions about the study and they were comfortable from my account and theirs in asking questions and participating. Data is reported using rich and thick descriptions, and as Creswell 2009 states, “When qualitative researchers provide detailed descriptions of the setting, for example or provide many perspectives about a theme, the results become more realistic and richer. This procedure can also add to the validity of the findings. (Creswell, 2009) <br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  42. 42. Data Recording Procedures:<br /> Both an interview and observational protocol were used when gathering and recording data. Questions and observations were created and conducted with the main research questions in mind. The interview protocol included a heading, instructions, and unstructured open ended questions based on observation and current study progress and insights, as well as an ending thank you statement or reminder for the research in closing. The observational protocol included demographic and setting information as well as descriptive and reflective research notes. <br />Section 2: Procedure<br />
  43. 43. Section 3: Data Analysis and Results<br /> It was the purpose of this study to understand the best practices of school and parent collaboration strategies and the perceptions of parents and their children surrounding their participation in school sponsored events.<br />Data Analysis and Results:<br /> The results of this mini study provided an opportunity to discover the perceptions regarding attendance at non-extracurricular school related events based on analysis of their responses to open ended interviews. Data was analyzed through grounded theory qualitative method using a three step process involving open, axial, and selective coding. As stated by (Strauss and Corbin, 1990), Grounded theory is a constant comparative method based on a progression of three types of coding procedures to analyze data: open, axial, and selective coding and the use of inductive analysis of the data results in the emergence of significant themes (Patton, 1990). Data was collected and then compared through interviews and observation regarding parents’ and students perceptions of strategies employed to increase interest levels and participation. <br />
  44. 44. Each piece of data when analyzed through the open coding process was categorized to determine what the information represented. The open codes were compared across situations and participants to see if axial codes were emergent. Axial coding involves searching for commonalities and making connections between data that were open coded (Strauss and Corbin, 1990). In progression, selective coding may be emergent after analysis of the data from open coding that indicated axial codes were present. Selective coding is “the process of selecting the central or core category, systematically relating it to other categories, validating those relationships, and filling in categories that need further refinement and development” (Strauss and Corbin, 1990, p. 116). The entire amount of data basically is analyzed, categorized and one can begin to see themes or patterns emerge from the raw data itself. It is the researches job to interpret and identify these themes and present the information in a way that is useful to those who work in the field of education. Data was triangulated among participants, observations, and document review to assure credibility.<br />Section 3: Data Analysis and Results<br />
  45. 45. Section 3: Data Analysis and Results<br />The study began with the identification of 20 parents, students, and teachers that I would be using for this research study. After identifying the specific subjects, I started collecting, reviewing and organizing data regarding parent and student responses to how they feel when attending school events and meeting teachers and school principal, affective and cognitive perceptions of the purpose of events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences, what parents identify as motivators to attend events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences, and perceptions are regarding the impact their attendance at school related events. <br />
  46. 46. In this stage of the research project, I also collected, reviewed and organized data regarding teacher responses based on how they feel when attending school events and meeting parents and students, affective and cognitive perceptions of the purpose of events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences, what teachers identify as motivators to attend events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences, and teacher perceptions regarding the impact of parent and student attendance at school related events. <br />Section 3: Data Analysis and Results<br />
  47. 47. Most parents and students stated that they did not attend all of the school events that were offered at their school this year. They also stated that this is not uncommon. The majority of responses indicated that most parents and students have in fact attended one school event from August to March this year. Slightly lower percentages in both groups have attended at least three events this year. Data at the open coding level for question 1 “feelings regarding attending school events and meeting teachers?” included responses from parents of feeling supported, intimidated, worried and comfortable. Responses from students included feelings of being nervous, comfortable and not caring. Responses for question 2 “perceptions regarding the impact of their attendance at school related events” included parents genuinely seem to feel that it is important to attend school events and that it is important for their child to see that it is important to them. Many students also stated the importance of attendance; however, the majority of students indicated that they really don’t understand the purpose of many school events. A few participants in both groups also stated they feel these events are a waste of time. <br />Section 3: Data Analysis and Results<br />
  48. 48.  <br /> Responses for question 3 “what are motivators to attend events such as back to school night and parent teacher conferences?” included extra credit, when both groups; parents and students asked one another to go to an event, if there was some type of food, a barbecue, offered at the school. Student’s responses also included that if their friends were going they would be more likely to attend as well. Responses for question 4 “what are perceptions regarding the impact their attendance at school related events” included very important, waste of time, no purpose and parents wanting to show their child interest. One other item that was stated from many different participants was the roadblocks or barriers for them to attend school functions. Though they were not specifically asked this, both parents and students indicated that they have more important things to do other than attending school events. Parents commented on the environment of where the event takes place was a factor in their decisions. Some parents also indicated that they have other children or that they work at night and this makes it difficult for them. Students also stated that their parents had too much to do and felt that added things may “stress” their parents out. <br />Section 3: Data Analysis and Results<br />
  49. 49. Interpretation and Conclusion<br /> <br /> Responses from parents and students indicated that the best strategy to achieve the goal of increased participation would be to give students extra credit for parent and student attendance at school sponsored events. One emergent theme identified through this study is the effect of feelings of intimidation and worry for parents and students. This above all other factors stop parents and students from being more active in these functions. Many parents stated that at times they felt intimidated and unsure when walking into a situation at school were they had to have one on one discussions with teachers in a small area or classroom. They also indicated that when conferences or back to school night took place in a gym or cafeteria, they were much more likely to attend. This is an important strategy for schools to consider when planning events. Another factor that would contribute to the overall goal of increased parent participation was providing parents and students with a clear understanding the purpose of specific events. This factor kept parents and students away from school functions. <br />
  50. 50. The purpose of this study was to “Discover effective strategies to facilitate higher rates of attendance from high school students and their families at school sponsored events.” Based on the results of this study, there are definite strategies states, districts, schools, and teachers can employ to include parents in this collaborative effort. Parents want to be involved and schools are making the effort to create comfortable and inclusive environments that can and will allow families, schools, and communities to work together to assist their youth in becoming more successful and personally fulfilled throughout their lifetime.<br />Interpretation and Conclusion<br />
  51. 51. Table 1: Attendance this year<br />Most parents and students stated that they did not attend all of the school events that were offered at their school this year. They also stated that this is not uncommon. The majority of responses indicated that most parents and students have in fact attended one school event from August to March this year. Slightly lower percentages in both groups have attended at least three events this year.<br />
  52. 52. Table 1: Attendance this year<br />Most parents and students stated that they did not attend all of the school events that were offered at their school this year. They also stated that this is not uncommon. The majority of responses indicated that most parents and students have in fact attended one school event from August to March this year. Slightly lower percentages in both groups have attended at least three events this year.<br />
  53. 53. Table 2: Feelings surrounding attendance and discussions with teachers<br />Many parents indicated that they feel supported when talking with their child’s teachers. A high percentage also indicated that they felt intimidated or worried also. A small percentage stated they felt comfortable. Intimidation was not a factor for students. The majority of students feel comfortable with talking to teachers as well as having their parents speak to their teachers. An equal percentage of students either do not care at all or felt nervous in these situations. <br />
  54. 54. Table 2: Feelings surrounding attendance and discussions with teachers<br />Many parents indicated that they feel supported when talking with their child’s teachers. A high percentage also indicated that they felt intimidated or worried also. A small percentage stated they felt comfortable. Intimidation was not a factor for students. The majority of students feel comfortable with talking to teachers as well as having their parents speak to their teachers. An equal percentage of students either do not care at all or felt nervous in these situations. Interestingly enough teachers also felt anxious when meting with parents.<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Table 4: Feelings regarding the importance of attendance at school events<br /> Parents genuinely seem to feel that it is important to attend school events and that it is important for their child to see that it is important to them. Many students also stated the importance of attendance; however, the majority of students indicated that they really don’t understand the purpose of many school events. A few participants in both groups also stated they feel these events are a waste of time. All School Staff see this as important or very important.<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Table 3: Motivating factors to attend school events<br />Most parents and students stated that the most significant factor for attendance would be if there was extra credit or an opportunity to improve a grade. The second greatest factor for attendance was when both group; parents and students asked one another to go to an event. There were a few respondents in each group that also would be motivated to attend if there was some type of food, a barbecue, offered at the school. Student’s responses also included that if their friends were going they would be more likely to attend as well. <br />
  59. 59. Table 3: Motivating factors to attend school events<br />Most teachers, parents and students stated that the most significant factor for attendance would be if there was extra credit or an opportunity to improve a grade. The second greatest factor for attendance was when parents and students asked one another to go to an event. There were a few respondents in each group that also would be motivated to attend if there was some type of food, a barbecue, offered at the school. Student’s responses also included that if their friends were going they would be more likely to attend as well. <br />
  60. 60. Table 4: Feelings regarding the importance of attendance at school events<br />Parents genuinely seem to feel that it is important to attend school events and that it is important for their child to see that it is important to them. Many students also stated the importance of attendance; however, the majority of students indicated that they really don’t understand the purpose of many school events. A few participants in both groups also stated they feel these events are a waste of time.<br />
  61. 61. Table 4: Feelings regarding the importance of attendance at school events<br />Parents genuinely seem to feel that it is important to attend school events and that it is important for their child to see that it is important to them. Many students also stated the importance of attendance; however, the majority of students indicated that they really don’t understand the purpose of many school events. A few participants in both groups also stated they feel these events are a waste of time. All School Staff see this as important or very important.<br />
  62. 62. Table 5: Roadblocks to Attendance<br />Both parents and students feel that they have more important things to do other than attending school events. Parents commented on the environment of where the event takes place was a factor in their decisions. Some parents also indicated that they have other children or that they work at night and this makes it difficult for them. Students also stated that their parents had too much to do and felt that added things may “stress” their parents out. <br />
  63. 63. Table 5: Roadblocks to Attendance<br />Both parents and students feel that they have more important things to do other than attending school events. Parents commented on the environment of where the event takes place was a factor in their decisions. Some parents also indicated that they have other children or that they work at night and this makes it difficult for them. Students also stated that their parents had too much to do and felt that added things may “stress” their parents out. Teachers responses were the same as parents, except that Parents included child care as a roadblock.<br />
  64. 64. Table 5: Roadblocks to Attendance<br />Both parents and students feel that they have more important things to do other than attending school events. Parents commented on the environment of where the event takes place was a factor in their decisions. Some parents also indicated that they have other children or that they work at night and this makes it difficult for them. Students also stated that their parents had too much to do and felt that added things may “stress” their parents out. Teachers responses were the same as parents, except that Parents included child care as a roadblock.<br />
  65. 65. Resources<br />Appendices<br /> Adams, K.S. & Christenson S.L. (2000). Trust and the family-school relationship: Examination of parent-teacher differences in elementary and secondary grades. Journal of School Psychology, 38 (5), 477-497.<br /> <br />Cotton, K., Wikelund, K. (1999). Parent Involvement in Education. School Improvement Research Series, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. 101 SW Main St., Suite 500 Portland, Oregon. Retrieved March 09, 2009, from http://www.nwrel.org/-archive/sirs/3/cu6.html<br /> <br />Desimone, L. (1999). Linking parent involvement with student achievement: Do race and income matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93(1), 11-30. <br /> <br />EducationBug.com, (2009). The History of The PTA. Retrieved on March 3, 2009 from http://www.educationbug.org/a/the-history-of-the-pta.html<br /> <br />Forsyth, P., Adams, C. (2006). Promoting a Culture of Parent Collaboration and Trust: An Empirical Study, RLEJSP, Winter2007. Originally presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. April 7, 2006, San Francisco, CA.<br /> <br />Goodwin, S. (2005). McLaughlin comments on history of parental involvement in school, The parent factor: It can make a world of difference for students. California Educator. Retrieved March 09, 2009, from http://ed.stanford.edu/suse/faculty/display-FacultyNews.php?<br /> <br />
  66. 66. Resources<br />Herman, J. L., & Yeh, J. P. (1980). Some Effects of Parent Involvement in Schools. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Boston, MA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED206963) Retrieved on March 9, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/-detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED206963&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED206963<br /> <br />Howland, A., Anderson, J., Smiley, D., Abbott, D.. (2006). School Liaisons: Bridging the Gap between Home and School, School Community Journal, v16 n2 p47-68 Fall-Win 2006.<br /> <br />McLaughlin, M.,Shields, P. (1986). Involving Parents in the Schools: Lessons for Policy. Designs for Compensatory Education: Conference Proceedings and Papers. Washington, D.C. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED293920) Retrieved on March 3, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_-01/0000019b/80/1d/84/e0.pdf<br />
  67. 67. Resources<br />McNeal, R. B. (1999). Parental involvement as social capital: Differential effectiveness on science achievement, truancy, and dropping out. Social Forces, 78(1), 117-144.<br /> <br />Parent Involvement and Student Achievement at the Middle Level, Research Summary #18, National Middle School Association, 4151 Executive Parkway, Suite 300 Westerville, Ohio 43081. Retrieved on March 3, 2009 from http://www.nmsa.org/portals/0/pdf/publications/On_Target/family_involvement/family_10.pdf<br /> <br />Sheldon, S. Parental Involvement in Education. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Education. Retrieved March 09, 2009, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/parental-involvement-in-education<br /> <br />

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