Ppt Ch 3


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Ppt Ch 3

  1. 2. Leadership Is Developed through Education and Experience <ul><li>“ Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” </li></ul><ul><li>~John F. Kennedy </li></ul>Chapter 3
  2. 3. The Action-Observation-Reflection Model <ul><li>Making the most of experience is key to developing one’s leadership ability. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory shows that leadership development is enhanced when the experience involves three different processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spiral of experience: Colin Powell’s example. </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Spiral of Experience
  4. 5. The Key Role of Perception in the Spiral of Experience <ul><li>Experience is not just a matter of what events happen to you; it also depends on how you perceive those events. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception affects all three phases of the action-observation-reflection model. </li></ul><ul><li>People actively shape and construct their experiences. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Perception and Observation <ul><li>Observation and perception both deal with attending to events around us. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are selective in what we attend to and what we, in turn, perceive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual sets can influence any of our senses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are the tendency or bias to perceive one thing and not another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings, needs, prior experience and expectations can all trigger a perceptual set. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes represent powerful impediments to learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of biases occurs upon reflection. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Perception and Reflection <ul><li>Reflection deals with how we interpret our observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is inherently an interpretive, or a meaning-making, activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributions : Explanations we develop for the behaviors or actions we attend to. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental attribution error : Tendency to overestimate the dispositional causes of behavior and underestimate the environmental causes when others fail. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Perception and Reflection (continued) <ul><li>Self-serving bias : Tendency to make external attributions for one’s own failures, yet make internal attributions for one’s successes. </li></ul><ul><li>Actor/observer difference : Refers to the fact that people who are observing an action are much more likely than the actor to make the fundamental attribution error. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection also involves higher functions like evaluation and judgment , not just perception and attribution. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Perception and Action <ul><li>Research found that perceptions and biases affect supervisors’ actions towards poorly performing subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy : Occurs when our expectations or predictions play a causal role in bringing about the events we predict. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that having expectations about others can subtly influence our actions . </li></ul><ul><li>These actions can, in turn, affect the way others behave . </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Role of Expectations in Social Interaction
  10. 11. Reflection and Leadership Development <ul><li>Reflection provides leaders with insights into several ways of framing problems , multiple perspectives , or better understanding . </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders tend to ignore reflection due to lack of time or lack of awareness of its value . </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional reflection might prompt one to see potential benefits in experience not initially considered relevant. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Single and Double-Loop Learning <ul><li>Single-loop learners seek relatively little feedback that may significantly confront their fundamental ideas or actions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals learn only about subjects within the “comfort zone” of their belief systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double-loop learning involves a willingness to confront one’s own views and an invitation to others to do so, too. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering double-loop learning can be thought of as learning how to learn. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Leadership Development through Experience <ul><li>Factors that make any given experience potent in fostering managerial growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The people you work with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The characteristics of the task itself </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaders in any field tend to first stand out by virtue of their technical proficiency . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence or proficiency are factors that serve as basis for emergence or selection of a leader. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Changing Requirements for Success
  14. 15. The People You Work With <ul><li>A boss can be a powerful catalyst for growth. </li></ul><ul><li>People from different backgrounds , perspectives , or agendas can impact the growth experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Working with problem subordinates can stimulate managerial growth, as can peers . </li></ul><ul><li>Both mentors and mentorees benefit from having the relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive coaching : General responsibility of all executives towards managers who report to them. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Developmental Tasks <ul><li>Leadership development can be enhanced in a changing , dynamic , uncontrollable , and unpredictable environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning and projections can contribute to a leader’s development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunities that stretch individuals and allow them to test themselves provide learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The risk of possible failure is a strong incentive for managers to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations may not provide the same development opportunities for all their members. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Making the Most of Your Leadership Experiences: Learning to Learn from Experience <ul><li>The learning events and developmental experiences that punctuate one’s life are usually stressful . </li></ul><ul><li>A flat learning curve can result due to an inability to move against one’s grain of personal success and tolerate a dip in performance results. </li></ul><ul><li>To be successful, learning must continue throughout life, beyond the completion of one’s formal education. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Anatomy of a Learning Experience
  18. 19. Leadership Development through Education and Training <ul><li>Research has shown that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education level or academic performance in college was positively related to future managerial success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational programs generally have a positive effect on leadership development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal education and training programs can help one become a better leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The content of different leadership programs varies considerably, depending on the target audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership education is a component of leadership development. </li></ul>
  19. 20. University Courses in Leadership <ul><li>Leadership training programs can include formal courses or extracurricular leadership activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The pedagogy used to impart different leadership concepts vary greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>Many courses use the standard lecture methods, or provide individualized feedback through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Leadership Training Programs <ul><li>Programs aimed particularly at industry and public service leaders and supervisors use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-playing exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programs for midlevel managers often focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized feedback, case studies, presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role playing, simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-basket exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaderless group discussions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Leadership Training Programs (continued) <ul><li>Conger offers that a multi-tiered approach is effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership development in the 21st century must occur in more lifelike situations and contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership programs for senior executives and CEOs focus on strategic planning , PR , and interpersonal skills . </li></ul><ul><li>No matter the type of program chosen, a systematic approach guarantees its usefulness. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Building Your Leadership Self-Image <ul><li>Leadership develops through experience and formal education . </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone wants to be a leader or believes he/she can be. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid selling yourself short . </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the importance of leadership, keep an open mind . </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid self-defeating generalizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiment and take a few risks with different leadership roles. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Summary <ul><li>One way to add value to your leadership courses and experiences is by applying the action-observation-reflection model. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the role perception plays in leadership development. </li></ul><ul><li>Education and experience can contribute to your development as a leader. </li></ul><ul><li>To become a better leader, one must seek challenges and try to make the best of any leadership opportunity . </li></ul>