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Planning

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Planning Components and stratgy of decision making and implementation

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Planning

  1. 1. NUML GROUP MEMBERS <ul><li>Qamar Zeeshan </li></ul><ul><li>Rohail Ali Ahmad </li></ul><ul><li>Ali Akbar </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Adnan </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad Shakeel </li></ul>
  2. 2. PLANNING & DECISION AIDS
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the major type of problems </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast the rational & non rational models of management decision makers. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe each of the steps in an effective decision making process. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major techniques for enhancing group creativity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the concept of strategic management and identify level,formultion and implementation of strategy </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS PLANNING <ul><li>The Process of setting goals and deciding how </li></ul><ul><li>best to achieve them </li></ul>DEFINITION
  6. 6. PLANNING & DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Managerial Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Planning And Decision Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Organizational Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Management </li></ul>
  7. 7. MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Crisis Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Non Crisis Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Differences In Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Manager as Decision Making </li></ul>Nature of Managerial Decision Making
  8. 8. MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Programmed Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Non Programmed Decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Differences In Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Manager as Decision Making </li></ul>Nature of Managerial Decision Making
  9. 9. MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>The Rational Model </li></ul><ul><li>Non Rational Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded Rationality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisficing Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GARBEG-CAN Model </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Differences In Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Manager as Decision Making </li></ul>Nature of Managerial Decision Making
  10. 10. MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Organizational Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Alternative Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul>Steps In An Effective Decision Making Process
  11. 11. MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Don’t criticize ideas while generating possible solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Freewheel. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer as many ideas as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating & Choosing an alternative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify the Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Alternative Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul>Steps In An Effective Decision Making Process
  12. 12. MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Implementing The Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring The Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Alternative Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul>Steps In An Effective Decision Making Process
  13. 13. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PLANNING <ul><li>Complacency </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Panic </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding to decide </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting the problem challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Search for sufficient alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the decision Escalation Phenomenon </li></ul>Overcoming barriers to effective planning.
  14. 14. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PLANNING <ul><li>Appraise creditability of information </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain importance of threat or opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the need for urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing common decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prospect theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring and adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accepting the problem challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Search for sufficient alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the decision Escalation Phenomenon </li></ul>Overcoming barriers to effective planning.
  15. 15. OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PLANNING <ul><li>Escalation situation </li></ul><ul><li>Non rational situation </li></ul><ul><li>Sunk Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting the problem challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Search for sufficient alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding the decision Escalation Phenomenon </li></ul>Overcoming barriers to effective planning.
  16. 16. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS <ul><li>Time series model </li></ul><ul><li>Explanatory or casual model </li></ul><ul><li>Regression Model </li></ul><ul><li>Econometric Model </li></ul><ul><li>Leading Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Innovation: Technological or qualitative Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>The Delphi Method </li></ul>FORECASTING
  17. 17. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS <ul><li>Primary aimed at predicting </li></ul><ul><li>long term trends in </li></ul><ul><li>technology and other </li></ul><ul><li>important aspects of the </li></ul><ul><li>environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Innovation: Technological or qualitative Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>The Delphi Method </li></ul>FORECASTING
  18. 18. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS <ul><li>A structured approach to </li></ul><ul><li>gaining the judgment of a </li></ul><ul><li>Number of experts on a </li></ul><ul><li>Specific issue relating to the </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant break through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent New Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Innovation: Technological or qualitative Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>The Delphi Method </li></ul>FORECASTING
  19. 19. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS <ul><li>Gantt Chart </li></ul><ul><li>PERT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Node, or event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Path </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Model </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative aids for decision making </li></ul>CONTROL MODEL
  20. 20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS <ul><li>Linear Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Queuing or Waiting-Line Model </li></ul><ul><li>Routing, or Distribution Model </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Models </li></ul><ul><li>Control Model </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative aids for decision making </li></ul>PLANNING TECHNIQUES
  21. 21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS <ul><li>Payoff Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Expected Value </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Break Time Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Control Model </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative aids for decision making </li></ul>QUANTITATIVE AIDS
  22. 22. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS & PLAN <ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products or Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for public image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning Components </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Goals </li></ul><ul><li>How Goals Facilitate Performance </li></ul>OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS
  23. 23. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS & PLAN <ul><li>Strategic goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactical goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Level Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Line Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning Components </li></ul><ul><li>Nature organizational Goals </li></ul><ul><li>How Goals Facilitate Performance </li></ul>OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS
  24. 24. ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS & PLAN <ul><li>Goal Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific & measurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelevant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisory authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer and group pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Display </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning Components </li></ul><ul><li>Nature organizational Goals </li></ul><ul><li>How Goals Facilitate Performance </li></ul>OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS
  25. 25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Formulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify current mission & strategy goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct competitive analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SWOT analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Specific Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out Strategy Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain Strategic goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic management process </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy Implementation </li></ul>Strategic Management Process
  26. 26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Formulation of Corporative Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulation of Business Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overall cost leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulation of Function level Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic management process </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy Implementation </li></ul>Strategic Management Process
  27. 27. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Carry Out Strategic Plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Strategic Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor Progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic management process </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy Implementation </li></ul>Strategic Management Process

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