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# Half Term Homework Biology Questions

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### Half Term Homework Biology Questions

1. 1. Half Term Homework Biology Questions Variation and its measurement 1. Deﬁne intraspeciﬁc variation 2. What is meant by random sampling 3. Describe the shape of a frequency graph showing normal distribution 4. What does the statistic ʻstandard deviationʼ provide information about? 5. Explain the difference between a characteristic that shows continuous and one that shows discontinuous variation 6. Data is often represented by its means and standard deviation. Explain the relationship between them 7. List the different ways gene mutations occur Causes of variation 1. Deﬁne phenotype and give the two groups of factors that cause variations of phenotype 2. Why is it difﬁcult to determine to what extent genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotype variations such as height in humans Measuring Variation In a class investigation, students measured their hand spans and those of other students to provide data for a frequency histogram of variation. The measurements were made by spreading the right hand ﬂat on a table with the thumb and the small ﬁnger spread as far
2. 2. Half Term Homework Biology Questions apart as possible. Then the distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the small ﬁnger was measured to the nearest millimetre. List A is raw data obtained for one class of students 197 200 160 162 176 186 188 172 164 166 159 155 178 176 172 178 182 182 182 182 186 188 189 199 189 170 193 196 206 211 List B is the raw data obtained for another class of students 145 149 204 207 155 157 162 165 173 175 178 187 189 188 191 141 192 194 197 131 150 206 144 142 198 202 209 210 212 1. What type of data is obtained by measuring hand span, continuous or discontinuous, give reasons for your answer 2. Data for frequency histograms can be obtained by measuring weight or height. Suggest why taking such measurements may be unsuitable for class investigations 3. Vernier calipers can be used to take measurements to the nearest tenth of a millimetre. Why in this study were measurements only taken to the nearest whole millimetre? 4. How could you test the reliability of measurements of linear dimensions? 5. Use the two sets of raw data to compile frequency tables and compile frequency histograms 6. Describe the shape of each frequency histogram
3. 3. Half Term Homework Biology Questions 7. Suggest why the shapes are different 8. Describe the possible causes of variation in hand spread 9. Explain why intraspeciﬁc variations are important for the survival of a species. DNA Structure 1. List the three components of a nucleotide 2. What forms the backbone of each DNA chain? 3. If one chain of DNA has the sequence AATCCG what will be the corresponding base sequence of its complementary strand? 4. What was Rosalind Franklinʼs major contribution to Watson and Crickʼs understanding of the structure of DNA? One Gene one Polypeptide 1. what is the name of the position on a strand of DNA occupied by a particular gene? 2. Why is the genetic code called a triplet code?
4. 4. Half Term Homework Biology Questions 3. Using the genetic code table what amino acid does the codon CAU code for? Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic DNA 1. How does prokaryotic DNA differ from eukaryotic DNA? 2. What are the main biochemical constituents of chromosomes? 3. Why is prokaryotic DNA sometimes referred to as naked? Meiosis 1. Why is meiosis sometimes called reduction division? 2. Explain what is meant by crossing over? Genetic Diversity 1. Deﬁne genetic diversity in terms of DNA 2. Why is the ʻfounder effectʼ so called? 3. What is the usual effect of a genetic bottleneck on genetic diversity? 4. What effect does inbreeding and outbreeding have on the genetic diversity of a population? 5. Why do pedigree dogs bred for show tend to have more genetic disorders than mongrels and cross beeds