SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN LAND OWNERSHIP IN INDIA   A STUDY WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO WEST BENGAL Aparajita Bakshi Junior Re...
Objectives  <ul><li>Assess the inequalities in access to land between the different social groups, especially Dalits and A...
Secondary data sources on land holdings in India <ul><li>National Sample Survey Land and Livestock Holdings Surveys </li><...
Definitions of land holdings <ul><li>Land and Livestock Holding surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership holdings of agricultur...
Households that do not cultivate land, India and States, 1993-94 and 2004-05 per thousand rural households 428 574 387 528...
Index of Access <ul><li>Index of Access for the social group j, denoted as Aj can be represented as; </li></ul><ul><li>Aj ...
Index of access to agricultural land by social groups, 1992 1.2 0.5 1.1 India 1.1 0.8 1.0 West Bengal 1.2 0.5 0.8 Uttar Pr...
Relative Index of Access to agricultural land, 1992   1.1 2.5 India 1.1 1.3 West Bengal 1.5 2.6 Uttar Pradesh 0.6 1.0 Trip...
TENTULTALA DALKATI KALINAGAR & BIDYANIDHI AMARSINGHI THUTHIPAKAR KALMANDASGURI
Social composition in the study villages, May June 2005   Source: Survey data 69.27 30.73 West Medinipur Dalkati 38.8 32.8...
Land reform benefits - Share of different social groups in agricultural land distributed in the study villages, May June 2...
Index of access to agricultural land in study villages, by social groups, May June 2005 Source: Survey data 0.6 1.8 Dalkat...
Land reform benefits – Share of different social groups in homestead land distributed in the study villages, May June 2005...
Net purchase of land in the last 15 years (1990 – 2005) in the survey villages, by social groups, in acres Source: Survey ...
<ul><li>Dalits in rural India have far less access to land than any other social group. There is an increase in landlessne...
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Aparajita Bakshi

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Aparajita Bakshi

  1. 1. SOCIAL INEQUALITY IN LAND OWNERSHIP IN INDIA A STUDY WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO WEST BENGAL Aparajita Bakshi Junior Research Fellow Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata, India
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Assess the inequalities in access to land between the different social groups, especially Dalits and Adivasis in rural India </li></ul><ul><li>A case study of the impact of land reforms in West Bengal, a State in Eastern India on the land holding among Dalit and Adivasi households </li></ul>
  3. 3. Secondary data sources on land holdings in India <ul><li>National Sample Survey Land and Livestock Holdings Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>48 th round (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>National Sample Survey Employment Unemployment Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>50 th round (1993-94) </li></ul><ul><li>61 st round (2004-05) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions of land holdings <ul><li>Land and Livestock Holding surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership holdings of agricultural land </li></ul><ul><li>Employment Unemployment Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Land cultivated by households </li></ul>
  5. 5. Households that do not cultivate land, India and States, 1993-94 and 2004-05 per thousand rural households 428 574 387 528 India 474 486 416 471 West Bengal 282 364 229 296 Uttar Pradesh 541 566 521 567 Tripura 718 845 634 770 Tamil Nadu 260 451 189 279 Rajasthan 683 941 615 949 Punjab 415 534 354 515 Orissa 480 676 430 597 Maharashtra 335 464 249 385 Madhya Pradesh 364 550 694 811 Kerala 461 622 383 516 Karnataka 189 225 133 140 Himachal Pradesh 593 945 515 886 Haryana 506 745 463 713 Gujarat 464 679 375 676 Bihar 243 272 294 444 Assam 607 747 495 604 Andhra Pradesh All Dalit All Dalit 2004-05 1993-94 States
  6. 6. Index of Access <ul><li>Index of Access for the social group j, denoted as Aj can be represented as; </li></ul><ul><li>Aj = Percentage of total extent of ownership/operational holdings owned/operated by group j ÷ Percentage of households in group j in total households </li></ul><ul><li>Relative access index A = Ai/Aj </li></ul>
  7. 7. Index of access to agricultural land by social groups, 1992 1.2 0.5 1.1 India 1.1 0.8 1.0 West Bengal 1.2 0.5 0.8 Uttar Pradesh 0.9 0.9 1.4 Tripura 1.3 0.4 0.7 Tamil Nadu 1.2 0.6 0.6 Rajasthan 1.6 0.1 0.0 Punjab 1.0 0.5 1.3 Orissa 1.2 0.5 0.7 Maharashtra 1.2 0.7 0.8 Madhya Pradesh 1.1 0.2 1.2 Kerala 1.1 0.6 0.8 Karnataka 1.1 0.7 0.4 Jammu & Kashmir 1.1 0.6 1.2 Himachal Pradesh 1.3 0.2 0.0 Haryana 1.2 0.5 0.5 Gujarat 1.1 0.2 1.7 Bihar 1.0 0.8 1.3 Assam 1.2 0.4 1.0 Andhra Pradesh Others SC ST Ownership holdings States
  8. 8. Relative Index of Access to agricultural land, 1992 1.1 2.5 India 1.1 1.3 West Bengal 1.5 2.6 Uttar Pradesh 0.6 1.0 Tripura 2.0 3.4 Tamil Nadu 2.1 2.1 Rajasthan 13.0 Punjab 0.8 2.1 Orissa 1.6 2.2 Maharashtra 1.5 1.7 Madhya Pradesh 0.9 6.4 Kerala 1.4 1.8 Karnataka 2.9 1.7 Jammu & Kashmir 1.0 1.8 Himachal Pradesh 6.0 Haryana 2.2 2.5 Gujarat 0.6 5.3 Bihar 0.8 1.3 Assam 1.2 3.0 Andhra Pradesh ND/Adivasi ND/Dalit Ownership holdings State
  9. 9. TENTULTALA DALKATI KALINAGAR & BIDYANIDHI AMARSINGHI THUTHIPAKAR KALMANDASGURI
  10. 10. Social composition in the study villages, May June 2005 Source: Survey data 69.27 30.73 West Medinipur Dalkati 38.8 32.8 28.4 0.0 Barddhaman Kalinagar 0.0 47.9 33.8 18.3 Barddhaman Bidyanidhi 5.5 46.1 8.6 39.8 Koch Bihar Kalmandasguri 55.9 36.2 7.9 0.0 Uttar Dinajpur Thuthipakar 0.9 32.7 66.4 0.0 Malda Amarsinghi 0.4 39.0 1.2 59.4 North 24 Parganas Tentultala Adivasi Dalit Non-Dalit Muslim As percentage of total households District Village
  11. 11. Land reform benefits - Share of different social groups in agricultural land distributed in the study villages, May June 2005 Source: Survey data 476 73 27 Dalkati 4.52 50 39 11 Kalinagar 2.8 82 0.0 18 Bidyanidhi 19.01 25 19 17 40 Kalmandasguri 9.72 45 8 46 Thuthipakar 11.64 0 5 95 Amarsinghi 6.5 0 71 0.0 29 Tentultala Adivasi Dalit Non-Dalit Muslim Total land distributed (in acres) Percentage of total agricultural land distributed Village
  12. 12. Index of access to agricultural land in study villages, by social groups, May June 2005 Source: Survey data 0.6 1.8 Dalkati 0.3 0.3 2.8 Kalinagar 0.2 2.4 0.4 Bidyanidhi 1.2 1.4 1.1 0.5 Kalmandasguri 0.8 1.3 1.4 Thuthipakar 0.0 0.5 1.3 Amarsinghi 5.8 1.5 2.3 0.6 Tentultala ST Dalit Non-Dalit Muslim Access Index - ownership holdings Village
  13. 13. Land reform benefits – Share of different social groups in homestead land distributed in the study villages, May June 2005 Source: Survey data 100.0 23.69 100.0 210 All 52.3 12.38 45.7 96 Adivasi 16.6 3.93 21.0 44 Dalit 9.6 2.28 9.5 20 Non-Dalit 21.5 5.1 23.8 50 Muslim As percentage of total land acquired Extent of land acquired (in acres) As percentage of all households Number of households that gained homestead Social group
  14. 14. Net purchase of land in the last 15 years (1990 – 2005) in the survey villages, by social groups, in acres Source: Survey data 10.0 -1.5 10.3 28.3 -9.3 -10.2 17.7 All 5.8 0.9 0.0 0.0 -20.9 0.0 -0.5 Adivasi 0.2 8.6 14.3 14.9 -0.6 11.0 Dalit 4.2 -2.5 -0.8 -1.8 -3.4 -9.6 1.0 Non Dalits 0.0 2.6 15.8 0.0 0.0 6.3 Muslim Dalkati Kalinagar Bidyanidhi Kalmandasguri Thuthipakar Amarsinghi Tentultala Caste
  15. 15. <ul><li>Dalits in rural India have far less access to land than any other social group. There is an increase in landlessness among Dalits in India in the previous decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary data show the Dalits in West Bengal have better access to land compared to other Indian States. This is indicated by the fact that the proportion of landless Dalit households is lower in West Bengal than the national average and the Index of Access is higher. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in the incidence of landlessness among Dalits in West Bengal in the previous decade is lower than that in India. Also, the increase in the incidence of landlessness in West Bengal is higher for non-Dalits than Dalits. </li></ul><ul><li>Village level data show that Dalit, Adivasi and Muslim households have been major beneficiaries of land reforms in West Bengal. These social groups have gained access to agricultural and homestead land through the process of land reforms. The direct policy of land reform implemented by the Government of West Bengal, though in a limited way, have contributed to lowering inequalities among the deprived social groups in the State and that is also reflected in the secondary data. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased purchasing power among the poor in Bengal facilitated by land distribution has increased the participation of Dalit and Muslim households in land markets. </li></ul>

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