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Chapt02 Lecture

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Chapt02 Lecture

  1. 1. EUROPE CHAPTER 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. European Influences <ul><li>Colonized other regions </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of language, religion, political ideas, scientific discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed natural environment </li></ul>
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Relative Location
  5. 5. Relative Location <ul><li>At the heart of the land hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum efficiency for contact with the rest of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Every part of Europe is close to the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Navigable waterways </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate distances </li></ul>
  6. 6. Physical Geography <ul><li>Geologic variety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient Shield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young, folded mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive Plains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes and earthquakes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Physical Geography <ul><li>Peninsulas </li></ul><ul><li>Estuaries </li></ul><ul><li>Fjords </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhine River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Climates <ul><li>Mostly temperate and humid </li></ul><ul><li>Support farm production </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean influences – North Atlantic Drift </li></ul><ul><li>Climate types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanic temperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical winter rain (Mediterranean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental temperate </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Climates <ul><li>Global warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retreating glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroelectric power sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising sea levels </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Natural Resources <ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate – Deciduous and evergreen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown earth – lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loess – North European Plain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean, Baltic, and North Seas </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Air & water pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Fish kills </li></ul><ul><li>Smog </li></ul><ul><li>Acid deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Black Triangle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol </li></ul>
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Human Geography <ul><li>Cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are Indo-European </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slavic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Others: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celtic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Albanian </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Human Geography <ul><li>Cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity predominates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism – impact of Nazi holocaust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islam – Increasing influence after World War II </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Population Dynamics <ul><li>Decreasing in Mediterranean and East Central European regions </li></ul><ul><li>Slight increase in most western and northern countries </li></ul><ul><li>Overall decline in fertility rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy and Spain have lowest fertility rates in the world (1.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exceptions to population decline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries with large Muslim populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing burden on welfare systems </li></ul>
  20. 20. Population Densities <ul><li>High Density Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban industrial belts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastlines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Density Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountainous regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme climates </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. European Cities
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Urban Pressures <ul><li>Among most highly urbanized countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Few extremely large cities </li></ul><ul><li>Many global city-regions (London, Paris) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal spatial differentiation within buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land use differentiated into districts (CBD, industrial, suburbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of public transportation </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>High suburban densities </li></ul><ul><li>Apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Land scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Government involvement in urban planning </li></ul>In European cities you are more likely to find:
  25. 25. Urban Pressures <ul><li>World War II –destruction </li></ul><ul><li>1945-1970 – reconstruction and expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentrification </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Evolving Politics <ul><li>Nation </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Nation-state </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Irredentism </li></ul>
  28. 28. Irredentism <ul><li>A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country </li></ul>B A A RIVER & BORDER COUNTRIES MINORITY POPULATION BORDER ADJUSTMENT
  29. 29. Ethnic Cleansing <ul><li>Refers to the forcible ouster of entire populations from their homelands by stronger powers bent on taking their territories </li></ul>A B A COUNTRIES BORDER MINORITY POPULATION
  30. 30. World Wars I and II <ul><li>Result of increasing competition and nationalism in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed economy in 1920s and 1930s encouraged fascism and communism </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide </li></ul>
  31. 31. Europe after 1945 <ul><li>Independence movements in colonies abroad </li></ul><ul><li>2 new world powers emerged: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communism spread into East Central Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic centralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NATO </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact </li></ul>
  32. 32. Global Economics <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began in Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffused to Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early industrial centers located near coalfields </li></ul>
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Growing and Changing Economies <ul><li>Productive capacity restored after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Agglomeration economies </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic inertia </li></ul><ul><li>Deindustrialization 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Western Europe = “economic heart” of the region </li></ul><ul><li>Germany = “motor” of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Major industries: cars and airplanes </li></ul>
  35. 35. Energy Sources <ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Oil – North Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroelectricity </li></ul><ul><li>Wind power </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal power </li></ul>
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Economic Activities <ul><li>Service Industries – 75% workforce today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most growth – Producer services & tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture – 2-7% workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market gardening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agribusiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensification </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Tourism <ul><li>Europe receives 55% of tourists worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Has 6 of top 10 places visited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>#1 – France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>#2 – Spain </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Subregions <ul><li>Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Europe </li></ul><ul><li>East Central Europe </li></ul>
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Western Europe <ul><li>Major colonial powers </li></ul><ul><li>First to experience Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Established global trade flows </li></ul><ul><li>Among world’s largest economic powers </li></ul><ul><li>Political influence </li></ul><ul><li>High HDIs </li></ul>
  43. 43. Western Europe <ul><li>German Reunification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided 1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Germany – an economic miracle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Germany – slow economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin Wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erected - 1961 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Torn down – 1989 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reunification - 1991 </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Northern Europe (Norden) <ul><li>Cold climates </li></ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Viking influence </li></ul><ul><li>Empires – Sweden and Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>High standards of living </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters of human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Industries: fishing, wood products, hi tech goods </li></ul>
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Mediterranean Europe <ul><li>Impact on Western civilization – Greek and Roman ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Age of Discovery – started in Spain and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Political problems – dictators </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong regionalism exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong economy – Po River Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milan – produces one-third Italy’s GDP </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Vatican city <ul><li>An enclave within Rome </li></ul><ul><li>The headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as an independent political entity </li></ul>
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Mediterranean Europe <ul><li>Mediterranean Sea Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major oil shipping lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51.
  52. 52. East Central Europe <ul><li>Dominated by 4 empires 1700s - 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet satellite states after World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist economic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMECON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties moving to capitalist systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2004 – many countries joined EU </li></ul>
  53. 53.
  54. 54. East Central Europe <ul><li>The Breakup of Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Croatia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macedonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kosovo </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57. Contemporary Geographic Issues Political Changes: European Union (EU) <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1949 - Benelux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1952 - European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1957 - European Economic Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1993 - European Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2002 - Euro adopted as common currency by 12 of 15 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004 – 10 new members added </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. History of European Supranationalism <ul><li>1947 – Marshall plan </li></ul><ul><li>1948 - Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) </li></ul><ul><li>1949 - Council of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1957 - Treaty of Rome signed, EEC formed. </li></ul><ul><li>1959 - EFTA effective </li></ul>
  59. 59. Contemporary Geographic Issues Political Changes: European Union (EU) <ul><li>Currently 27 members </li></ul><ul><li>456 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Supranationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial drain of poorer states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of national sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion of national identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of border controls </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. European Union Members 2007 <ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Malta </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>EU Members and non-members </li></ul><ul><li>€ indicates participation in the Euro currency </li></ul>European Supranationalism
  62. 62.
  63. 63. Contemporary Geographic Issues Devolution within Europe <ul><li>United Kingdom and Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing autonomy – Scotland and Wales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict in Northern Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalists (unionists) vs. Loyalists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics and Protestants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violence declined in 1990s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working on shared government arrangement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Yugoslavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Contemporary Geographic Issues Multicultural Societies <ul><li>Women’s Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Court of Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refugees and asylum seekers </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of decolonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differing policies: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany – “guest workers” </li></ul></ul></ul>

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