1784 - 1800 Sample project


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1784 - 1800 Sample project

  1. 1. Michael Siegenthaler April 2006 AP U.S. History 1784 - 1800
  2. 2. Thesis Statement <ul><li>Although great change and outstanding progress was made economically and socially in the years from 1784-1800, the greatest change and accomplishments of this decade and a half came politically as the new nation began to cement its government in the Constitution, institute its own political parties, pass revolutionary legislation, and establish itself as a prominent world power. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Political Change
  4. 4. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 <ul><li>The Northwest Ordinance, one of the greatest achievements under the Articles of Confederation, guaranteed trial by jury, freedom of religion, freedom of excess punishment, and abolished slavery in the Northwest Territories . </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Constitution <ul><li>In 1787 a convention was held to draft our modern constitution built on the principle of checks and balances between three different braches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. (A Bill of Rights was added in 1791 to appease anti-federalist concerns.) </li></ul>Signing of the Constitution
  6. 6. Major Political Leaders <ul><li>George Washington and John Adams, the two first presidents of the United States, made incredible accomplishments in both the domestic and foreign sector, setting long lasting precedents for our future political greatness as a nation. </li></ul>Washington Adams
  7. 7. Jay Treaty <ul><li>In 1794 John Jay, negotiated a treaty with England regarding free trade in America; however, the treaty failed to address the concerns of impressment or outstanding debts of some loyalists. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Emergence of Political Parties <ul><li>The appearance of the first political parties in the U.S. were the result of a feud between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson over the constitutionality of a National Bank and the interpretation of the constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strict constructionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic-Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>loose constructionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The XYZ Affair <ul><li>The XYZ affair, which occurred when three French diplomats requested a bribe to continue peace negotiations with the U.S. (regarding attacks on American ships), aroused great anti-French sentiment and would have sparked a war if not for the diplomacy of President Adams. </li></ul>The XYZ Affair (1797)
  10. 10. The Alien and Sedition Acts <ul><li>The Alien and Sedition Acts, which allowed for the expulsion of foreigners and jailing of newspaper editors who spoke out against the government, were a Federalist action countered by Jefferson and Madison with the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions which argued for nullification. </li></ul><ul><li>“… That whenever there shall be a declared war between the United States and any foreign nation or government… all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States, and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed, as alien enemies. “ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alien and Sedition Acts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Social Change
  12. 12. Gender Roles <ul><li>Although it was still believed that a women’s place was in the home, the revolution elevated women to a role of defenders of the national conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Motherhood </li></ul>Abigail Adams was thought to be a great example of this new concept
  13. 13. Influence of the Youth <ul><li>Although public education would not flourish in the U.S. until the nineteenth century, a great deal of attention was focused on trying to educate and instill proper values in the youth who would become the future leaders of the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Of all the views of this law [for public education], none is more important, none more legitimate, than that of rendering the people the safe as they are the ultimate guardians of their own liberty.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>--Thomas Jefferson: Notes on Virginia Q.XIV, 1782. ME 2:206 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Art <ul><li>1789 marked the beginning of the Federal Period in American art, furniture, and architecture which was characterized by a new sense of nationalism and a return to the principles of classicalism. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Literature <ul><li>During the closing years of the eighteenth century, most of American Literature remained focused on politics but satires, epics, ballads, and the “nature poems” of writers such as Philip Freneau were becoming more popular. </li></ul>Philip Freneau
  16. 16. Minorities <ul><li>Slavery was dying out in the south at the close of the eighteenth century; however, the invention of the cotton gin created a increased need for labor and renewed the demand for slaves. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economic Change
  18. 18. Alexander Hamilton <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton, the most famous Secretary of Treasury in U.S. history, developed a financial program to help deal with the war debt that included: the funding of the national debt, the assumption of all state debts, and the imposition of a tax on liquor. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Bank of the United States <ul><li>Another crucial part of Hamilton’s financial program was the establishment of the controversial First Bank of the United States which would help to control the war debts and establish a standard form of currency. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cotton Gin <ul><li>The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 and established cotton as the major crop of the south, revolutionizing southern agriculture and the national economy as the U.S. became the world’s largest exporter. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Interchangeable Parts <ul><li>Eli Whitney made another significant contribution to the American economy with his invention of interchangeable parts for muskets in 1798, which would go on to revolutionize mass production and the assembly line. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Samuel Slater <ul><li>Samuel Slater, the father of American industry, secretly brought knowledge of English textile factories to Rhode Island and helped to establish one of the first factories in America sparking the Industrial Revolution in the Western Hemisphere and the emergence of a working class. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Class Developments Resulting from Economic Change <ul><li>The economic changes of the decade seemed to favor a widening gap between the rich and the poor; for example, the financial programs of Hamilton clearly favored wealthy bankers over your average farmer. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>The time period from 1784-1800 was a dynamic and rapidly evolving era in our nation’s history, socially and economically; however, in the field of politics the change occurring was the most revolutionary as the nation completely revised its form of government and established itself as an entity on the world stage. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Works Cited <ul><li>http://www.law.msu.edu/students/wlc/the_caucus_march02.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://etext.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bibliomania.com/2/3/270/frameset.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jay's_Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XYZ_Affair </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ushistory.org/tour/tour_1bank.htm </li></ul><ul><li>www.google.com/images </li></ul><ul><li>Cracking the AP U.S. History Exam- Tom Meltzer and Jean Hofheimer Bennett </li></ul><ul><li>The American Pageant- Thomas A. Bailey, David M. Kennedy, and Lizabeth Cohen </li></ul>