Past and Future Emergencies in the State of Pakistan
Past and Future Emergencies in the State of Pakistan Manan Ahmed Jan 17, 2008 [email_address] www.chapatimystery.com military power feudal structures civil bureaucracy
So it “Pakistan” was a word born in exile which then went East, was borne-across or trans-lated, and imposed itself on history; a returning migrant, settling down on partitioned land, forming a palimpsest on the past ... and Pakistan, the peeling, fragmenting palimpsest, increasingly at war with itself, may be described as a failure of the dreaming mind ... Perhaps the place was just insufficiently imagined , a picture full of irreconcilable elements, midriff-baring immigrant saris versus demure, indigenous Sindhi shalwar-kurtas, Urdu versus Punjabi, now versus then: a miracle that went wrong. - Salman Rushdie, Shame, 1983
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan Pakistan on the Globe.
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan British Colonial Rule in South Asia 1757-1947
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan After WWII, Britain withdrew from South Asia, creating the nation-states of India and Pakistan in 1947 Pakistan comprised of East and West Pakistan. Over 400,000 people were killed during migration riots.
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan Seldom has a new state been created under such contradictory pressures or with such a load of full-grown problems. Control of the government is vested in a few top officials, supported by a powerful bureaucracy, but Britain has a say in matters of defense, finance, and foreign policy. Already the government is shot through with corruption and nepotism. Social life is dominated by Mohammedan concepts, including the subjection of women. The structure of the state, however, has not yet had time to harden, and internal strains may reshape it in another image. - The Nation , 1947
After more than eight years of independence Pakistan still exists. This has been a major accomplishment and it is one that dwarfs the record of instability, intrigue and inefficiency that has been characteristic of many aspects of her political life. The country has not broken in two; it has not fallen into the hands of religious fanatics; it has not collapsed under the pressures of bankruptcy and starvation. These facts must be set beside the forebodings of many outside obesrvers in 1947, as well as measured against the extravagant hopes and prophecies of the founders of Pakistan. - Keith Callard, 1956
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan East Pakistan seceded to become Bangladesh in 1971.
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan The 60 years of post-colonial period in Pakistan has been evenly divided between military dictatorships and military-backed civilian governments. Ayub Khan (1958-1969) Yahya Khan (1969-1971) Zia ul Haq (1977-1988) Pervez Musharraf (1999 - ) Liaqat Ali Khan (1947-1951) Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (1973-1977) Benazir Bhutto (1988-1990) & (1993-1996) Nawaz Sharif (1990-1993) & (1997-1999) Iskander Mirza (1956-1958)
US - Pakistan A growing number of top American planners came to believe that the participation of Pakistani troops in an area defense plan could help resolve the West’s strategic dilemma in the Middle East. Acting on that assumption, early in 1954 the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower agreed to provide Pakistan with military assistance in return for Pakistan’s promise to partake in a regional defense pact that was to be centered on the northern tier states of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan. - Robert J. McMahon, 1988
US - Pakistan In 1979, U.S.S.R invaded Afghanistan. In 1983, United States began a covert, and then overt, supply of weapons, training and money to the Afghan resistance “Mujahideen”. General Zia ul Haq (r. 1977-1988) was put in charge of the fight against Communism.
US - Pakistan In October 2001, United States responded to the September 11, 2001 attacks by launching a military campaign against the Taliban and al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. General Pervez Musharraf (r. 1999 - ) was put in charge of the fight against Terrorism.
US-Pakistan Nuclear Proliferation. Extremism. Two paradigms that dominate US policy towards Pakistan.
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan Our fear is an Islamic Nuclear Bomb used against United States.
A Very Brief Long History of Pakistan Under the guise of War on Terror, Pervez Musharraf’s military regime is responsible for thousands of “disappearances”; torture and other human rights violations. Missing in Pakistan: A Short Documentary by Ziad Zafar
Emergency:1951 The Assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan - First Prime Minister - Member of All India Muslim League - a largely feudal organization - Assassinated by gunman in Rawalpindi, 1951. - Judicial, Constitutional, and Political crisis - First Martial Law
Emergency:1979 The Hanging of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto - First elected Prime Minister - feudal background - Founder of Pakistan People’s Party - a populist organization - Built Pakistan along patrimonial lines - Overthrown by General Zia ul Haq - Judicial, Constitutional, and Political crisis - Third Martial Law
Emergency: 2007 The Assassination of Benazir Bhutto - First elected woman Prime Minister in a Muslim state - Corruption charges - Political deals with Islamist parties - Brokered return from exile
On November 3rd, 2007 General Pervez Musharraf suspended the Constitution, imprisoned the Supreme Court, banned the media, and declared Pakistan to be in a State of Emergency
Praetorianism remains a prominent features of Pakistani politics, both in the narrower sense of military political involvement and rule, but also more broadly as the direct engagement of social forces and groups in uninstitutionalized political action: once having seized power for avowedly limited purposes, the generals have not been able to disentangle themselves and return the reins of government to civilians. - William Richter, 1978
The Musharraf Effect: Dismantling of Civil Bureaucracy Re-trenchment of Landed Elite Development of Military into the largest bureaucracy and land holding entity in the country
The Musharraf Effect: SubNationalist or Islamist Movements
On November 3rd, 2007 General Pervez Musharraf suspended the Constitution, imprisoned the Supreme Court, banned the media, and declared Pakistan to be in a State of Emergency Across the country, Lawyers and Students took to streets - fighting for restoration of civil and human rights.
The Lawyers are arguing for a Constitution based Democracy and their movement started in March 2007 March 9, 2007 Accusing him of abuse of power and nepotism, General Musharraf suspended Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry. May 2007 A weekend of clashes between government supporters and opposition parties left at least 39 people dead in Karachi, the nation’s commercial and financial hub. The violence was sparked when Mr. Chaudhry visited the city.
The Lawyers are arguing for a Constitution based Democracy and their movement started in March 2007 July 20, 2007 Pakistan's Supreme Court ruled that General Musharraf's suspension of the chief justice was illegal, and reinstated Mr. Chaudhry to the post. Aug. 9, 2007 Pakistani officials acknowledged that General Musharraf had been on the brink of declaring a state of emergency but backed away after a gathering storm of media, political and diplomatic pressure, including a late-night exhortation from Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. Oct. 6, 2007 General Musharraf was re-elected president by national and provincial assemblies, but the victory was left incomplete by the refusal of opposition parties to take part, and pending hearings in the Supreme Court, which still has to decide on his eligibility to run for election in uniform. Nov. 3, 2007 General Musharraf declared a state of emergency, suspending the Constitution and dismissing the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
http://www.chapatimystery.com/archives/homistan/readings_on_pakistan.html download Reading Packet: http://manan.uchicago.edu /dl/PakistanReadings.zip /dl/PakistanReadings.zip /dl/PakistanReadings.zip /dl/PakistanReadings.zip Further Readings on Pakistan